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Saturday, October 29, 2011

Women over 30 gained the vote in 1918 mainly because of women’s contributions to the war effort. Do you agree?

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It is believed by many that the conclusion to over twenty years of women’s campaigning was down to their work during the war. I would say this is a naïve comment, taking the work women did before the war much less seriously than it warrants.


The NUWSS had previously postponed their protests, and when the WSPU realised how long this war could last they too postponed their protests. They even went on a march demanding the right to be more involved with the war effort. This campaign however, was almost immediately successful as many considered their actions to be not only patriotic but also responsible.


During the war women were given the opportunity to do jobs it would simply be unheard of for them to do before the war, jobs such as bus conductresses (clippies), shopkeepers, welders and engineers. Women did almost every job under the sun, except coal mining.


One of the most popular jobs was working in munitions factories. The 00,000 women who worked in munitions factories would be known as munitionettes or canaries (the chemicals used turned the women’s skin yellow, it also caused lung disease and skin cancer). During the war 80 women were killed in munitions explosions but, aware of the risks, women were paid £-5 a week, less than what men were paid but still more than women were used to, and by 117 the factories had produced more shells than the army could use!


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Many middle and upper class women who had never worked in their lives wanted to help the war effort. Some, with large properties opened up their homes as nursing or convalescent homes for wounded soldiers. Although many women wanted to be involved more directly and so joined the Volunteer Aid Detachments (VADs). This was unpaid work, and women were able to be nursing members, cooks, kitchen maids, laundresses, even motor drivers. 15,000 chose to be nursing assistants


Another area that required women’s labour was in agriculture, or as it was called, the Land Army. Unfortunately this was not a popular choice 60,000 women were needed in this area, of this target, only 48,000 joined up.


One of the most underrated areas was one newly set-up for women. That was, in the Auxilary Armed Forces, these were not front-line fighting groups and were noon-combatant, some of these groups included


- The Women’s Army Auxilary Corps (WAAC)


- The Women’s Naval Service (WRNS)


- The Women’s Royal Air Force (WRAF)


Also, a women’s police force was set up. All of the auxiliary forces and the police force lasted throughout and even after the war ended.


With all this said, I believe some of the most prominent actions came from Edith Cavell. A British nurse based in Belgium, Cavell treated patients of any nationality that came into her hospital. When the hospital fell under German control she decided to stay rather than run to British lines. She smuggled two successfully healed British soldiers and allowed them to escape back to British lines. Unfortunately the Germans found out and Cavell was immediately shot. In my opinion these were some of the most patriotic actions seen during the entire war.


To conclude, I disagree with this statement. The work of women during the war was a huge stepping-stone towards getting them the vote but so to was the long campaign of propaganda, and also the campaign of the militants, or suffragettes. Without the extreme militancy and the war, I still believe the vote would have come, just more slowly.








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WOG Day

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What could possibly force a crew of nearly 1,500 sailors and marines on a United States Amphibious vessel to crawl around on their hands and knees while being subjected to numerous disgusting humiliations? Is this Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) punishment at its worst? A strange chemical weapon drill? The cause of this seemingly absurd behavior is an ancient naval ritual known as crossing the line better known as wog day. It is performed when a United States ship crosses the equator; this ceremony has a rich and varied history. Crossing the line is nearly as old as seafaring itself and the most humorous ritual I’ve ever participated in.


Wog Day is made up of many different navy beliefs, legends, and characters. Starting with King Neptune. King Neptune is the roman God of fresh water but sometimes he is associated with Poseidon. Poseidon had a kingdom in the sea and put King Neptune in charge of it. “King Neptune sometimes appears with his trident and his wife Queen Amphitrite. (www.cushing.navy.mil)” Another character associated with wog day is Davey Jones. Davey Jones has a number of stories concerning his origin. “The Australians tell a tale of a fearsome pirate who sank to the bottom of the sea when crossing the equator and now patrols the equator on his killer whale boarding any vessel that dares to pass waters of the King’s Majestic Realm. (CDR McComas United States Navy)” Some ceremonies list Davey Jones as King Neptune’s Royal Scribe, who makes sure each wog has crossed the line. Another characters that make up wog day are Wogs and Shellbacks. A wog is a sailor or marine that has not been a cross the equator. And a shellback is a Sailor or Marine that has been across the equator.


Being a shellback carries a special meaning. It’s a name that explains your shipboard experience. Everyone that joins the navy does not have the chance to carry the name shellback. However there are an abundance amount of sailors that carry the name wog. A shellback is someone to look up to to junior sailors that are new on board. Being a shellback not only means that you’ve had the chance to part take in the wog day celebration. It also means you’ve had the chance to visit the Navy’s best port. Australia.


I can remember my first crossing the line experience as if it was yesterday. The morning of February 5th 18 at 18 am the USS Dubuque LPD-8 officially crossed the equator (0th parallel). After reveille, the wogs were woken up very rudely and abruptly by the shellbacks. We were told to put on clothes that only slimy wogs deserved to wear. Our attire for the wog day celebration was our daily working uniform. However everything had to be turned inside or worn backwards. We were advised to wear only uniforms we planned on throwing away because things were going to get pretty messy. The wogs who wished to participate in the celebration duck walked to the mess decks being led by our honorable trusty shellbacks to consume a hearty breakfast. The hearty breakfast consisted of green eggs and noodles. Everything associated with us slimy wogs was green. While we feasted on our delightful green meal, the trusty shellbacks were raising the Jolly Rogers pennant to signify to passers that there were slimy wogs aboard. When breakfast had ended, all the slimy wogs assembled on the flight deck where the trusty shellbacks led us to the beginning of the rigorous obstacle course. They did there best to cleanse us by washing us down with refreshing, cold, salty seawater. Your wog day went well depending on your ship social status. If a sailor was well liked, disliked or very popular his or her wog day was very long and problematical. However if a Sailor was one that usually kept to him or her self, the wog day was quick and painless because no one knew enough about that sailor to give them a hard time. I was known as a pretty boy on board the USS Dubuque with a great deal of arrogance and conceit in my blood. So my wog day went by extremely slow. At one point in time it seemed as if everyone attention was on me. After my salt water wash down. I found myself blowing bubbles in pad eyes with my hands tied behind my back with at the same time having hot sauce poured down my buttocks and having peanut butter smeared in my hair, face, and ears. The slimy wogs went from station to station on the obstacle course participating in many ridiculous acts such as kick lines, and singing songs. We were constantly asked to repeat different things to our honorable shellbacks. Such as “I’m a slimy wog and I deserve to be punishment. Please honorable trusty shellbacks punish me.” After completing the obstacle course that was designed for us slimy wogs, I reached the end just for one my honorable shellbacks to tell me to go to the very beginning of the obstacle course. I was pretty upset. I already had a burning sensation in my eyes from all of the salt water and a feverish sensation in my buttocks from the hot sauce. And to top it all off I could hardly hear from all the peanut butter in my ears. However I swallowed my pride and obeyed my trusty shellback and proceeded to the beginning of the obstacle course. Again I went through every station and endured all the humiliations to reach the end and again was told to go back to the beginning. This time they felt sorry for me. Instead of making me go back to the beginning, the decided to take me to the focastle and have me call for Flipper. Flipper was a well know television dolphin that did not exist in real life. I can remember calling Flipper’s name as if he was really going appear at the top of salty deep blue ocean. My honorable shellbacks thought it was so humorous. I was happy they found it funny. As long as they were laughing they couldn’t have me doing anything else. However soon the laughing had ceased and I was lead back to the beginning of the obstacle course. This time when I reach the end I was allowed to finish. In front of me was a large tub of salty emerald water. It was used to simulate the final cleansing of the slimy wog. I jumped in with a sigh of relief and stayed down at the bottom for what seemed like a lifetime. When I emerged Master Chief Lloyd who was playing the part of King Neptune ask me what was I. I proudly held my head up high and said “King Neptune I am an Honorable trusty Shellback.”


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After the wog day celebration everyone was off for the rest of the day. There was a big bar-b-queue on the flight deck. And later that night we had cinema at sea. To some wog day may be dumb and a waste of time. I felt the same way at first. But once I became a trusty shellback I was able to torture the other slimy wogs in the years that followed.








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Friday, October 28, 2011

Timmy

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The University of Florida


The University of Florida was established in 106. In 185 the state had funded the East Florida Seminary and took over the Kingsbury Academy in Ocala. They then moved the Seminary to Gainesville in the 1860’s. It was later consolidated with the state’s land grant, Florida Agricultural College then they moved it to Lake city. Then in 105 by the legislative actions they took the college had became a university. That is when it changed to the University of Florida. The classes had started out with around 10 students on the campus on September 6, 106. The University had finally opened its doors to the women in 147. So up to that date the college had been strictly boy men. With more than 46,000 students now, UF is one of the top five largest Universities in the nation.


In the year of 001 the enrollment list counted up to 46,515 students. That count included 40,4 in-state students that strolled in for all around in Florida. There were ,700 international students representing 100 different countries. There were the other remaining students coming in from the other 4 states. The ratio between the women and men was 548. About 7 percent of the enrolled students were undergraduates. 1 percent were graduates and the other 7 percent were in professional degree programs. Those programs had included (dentistry, law, medicine, pharmacy, and veterinary medicine.) 7. percent of the student population is African American students, .6 is Hispanic student and about 6.8 percent is Asian/American or Pacific Islander students.In 11, Hitler moved to Munich, and when the war began volunteered in a Bavarian regiment, earning the rank of Corporal and awarded the Iron Cross.


After the war, Hitler was a member of the Freikorps, and in 11 joined the German Workers party that would become the NSDAP or Nazi party.


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In 1, Hitler with Ernst Roehm who had formed the paramilitary SA brownshirts in the Nazi Party, sought to take over the Bavaria government in the Beer Hall Putsch of Nov. 8-, but failed and Hitler served months in prison where he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle dictated to Rudolph Hess) that emphasized antisemitism and the expansion of German living space.


In 15, Hitler seized leadership of a reorganized and newly-legalized National Socialist German Workers Party.


In 1 Hitler led a political campaign against the Young Plan of reparations payments.


In the May 5 elections of 1, Hindenburg defeated Hitler 5% to 7% for the presidency, but there was no majority in the Reichstag for any party; in the July1 elections the Nazis won 0 seats with 7% of the vote and became the largest German party, but dropped to % in the Nov. 6 elections; Dec. 1, Kurt von Schleicher replaced Franz von Papen as Chancellor but instability increased.


Hitler made Chancellor Jan. 0, 1, with the help of von Papen, and sought revision of Versailles system by immediately beginning a rearmament program with the support of industrialists such as Alfred Hugenberg and Gustav Krupp (who by April agreed to remove Jewish workers from his factories), and a public works program announced at the Feb. 11 International Automobile and Motor-Cycle Exhibition in Berlin, to build autobahns with 600,000 workers and make a Volksauto for less than 1000 marks.


In the March 5, 1 elections, the National Socialist German Workers Party won 4.% and 88 of 647 seats in the Reichstag. The Malicious Practices Act of March 1, 1, began the mass arrests of communists and socialists, the Dauchau concentration camp was set up March in a former powder milk plant, the Enabling Act March made Hitler dictator and eliminated other parties such as the pro-Catholic Zentrum, radical books were burned May 10.


On Sept. 7, 1, the Nazis blamed communists for the Reichstag fire.


On Oct. 14, 1 - Hitler withdrew from the League of Nations and the Geneva Disarmament conference.


On Jan. 6, 14, Hitler revealed to a shocked Europe a 10-year nonaggression pact with Poland.


On June 0, 14, the Night of the Long Knives, Hitler murdered Ernst Rohm and began to eliminate the SA, replacing the old Nazi party brownshirts with Heinrich Himmlers SS and Reinhard Heydrichs SD as state internal security forces.


On August , 14, Hindenburg died and Hitler became Supreme Commander of the armed forces.


On March 1, 15, the Saarland was officially reincorporated into Germany following the plebiscite vote Jan. 1 of 1% in favor.


In March 15 Hitler revealed to Europe his military programs, on Mar. 10 Goering announced the existence of the Luftwaffe, on March 16 Hitler announced conscription and a 6-division Wehrmacht, on March 17 proclaimed Heroes Memorial Day as the Beethoven Funeral March was played in the Berlin State Opera House.


On April 11, 15, England, France, Italy declared a Stresa Front to defend the boundary agreements of the Locarno Pact of 15, but was toothless.


On May , 15, a Franco-Russian alliance was signed to defend against a resurgent Germany.


On June 18, 15, the new British government led by recently-elected PM Stanly Baldwin and Foreign Minister Samuel Hoare, preferring negotiation rather than confrontation, signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement to allow the German navy parity at 5% of British navy.


On Sept. 10, 15, the annual Nazi party rally began at Nuremberg, featuring the first public display of the Wehrmacht, the announcement of the Flag Law replacing the Kaisers black-red-white horizontal striped flag with the swastika as the nations official symbol, and the announcement of the antisemitic Nuremberg Laws.


On March 7, 16, the first German troops crossed the Hohenzollern Bridge in Cologne as Hitler was addressing the Reichstag, and began reoccupation of Rhineland, marking according to Ian Kershaw, the transition in Hitler from Hubris to Nemesis.


Ethiopia invaded by Mussolini


Mussolini 16


Hailie Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopiafrom ILN 141/0/01


Mussolini and League cartoonfrom Fortune, 16


FDR


FDR


Ethiopia map 14 - bg


Italy map from ILN 140/06/15


Europe map 10- - bg


Mediterranean from ILN 141/04/1 - b - top - bott


map of The Levant Battleground of the Empire Today from ILN 140/11/16 - LS - bg


Italy lost its Ethiopia colony in Africa at 186 Battle of Adua


· one of the worst colonial disasters of modern history


· 5,000 Italians defeated by 100,000 Ethiopians under Menelek who had accepted an Italian protectorate in 188 Treaty of Ucciali to become king.


On Dec. 5, 14, a skirmish at Wal Wal (Ualval) involving an Italian garrison 80 miles inside the Ethiopian border was used by Mussolini as a pretext for demanding compensation and preparing for war.


Jan. , 15 - Hailie Selassie appeals to League


· Mike Cutris Hailie Selassie and Boom Shakas Selassie archive


Jan. 7 - Laval agreement with Mussolini - gives him Ethiopia in violation of 106 Anglo-French agreement excluding Italy from Ethiopia


Feb. - Italy sends large forces to Ethiopia - only mild protest by Stresa Front


June - Anthony Eden, British minister for League Affairs


· tries to negotiate with Mussolini but fails


Oct. , 15, Mussolini ordered the bombing of Adowa by planes and the beginning of the invasion of Ethiopia by Marshal Badoglio Oct. who was authorized to use poison mustard gas and destroy civilian villages.


Oct. 5 - FDR invoked Act in Ethiopian conflict, but followed middle-road course


· kept separate from League - no strategic materials or oil on embargo list


· urged moral embargo on all trade with Italy, but U.S. exports to Italy increased


Oct. 7 - League declaredItaly the aggressor


Nov. 14 - Tories won Brit election on platform of League sanctions against Ital. aggression


Nov. 18 - Leagues sanctions begin


· arms embargo, financial embargo, nonimportation of Ital. goods


Dec. 10 - secret Hoare-Laval agreement revealed in press


· Pierre Laval - swarthy French PM


· Samuel Hoare - Brit foreign secy under PM Stanley Baldwin


· (Anthony Eden became foreign secy in 17 with PM Neville Chamberlain)


Dec. - England concentrated navy at Alexadria - but poorly prepared


· England allowedItaly to use Suez Canal


Feb. 16 - League could not agree on critical oil sanctions


· mainly because FDR refused - U.S. controlled 50% world oil trade


Feb. 1 - Senate For. Rel. Comm. approved Thomas 14-month extension bill


· not Pittman-McReynolds discretionary bill


· not Nye-Clark-Maverick mandatory total trade restriction bill


Feb. - FDR signed Thomas bill - the 16 Neutrality Act


1. mandatory arms embargo with belligerents and new belligerents entering a war in progress


. discretionary travel restriction


. mandatory ban on loans to belligerents but short-term credits exempt


4. American Republics exempt


Mar. -Apr. 8 - FDR went on Bahama cruise


May 5 - Italy occupied Addis Ababa - annexed all Ethiopia May








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Thursday, October 27, 2011

Prostate Cancer

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There are several people in my family that have suffered from cancers and high blood pressure. The high blood pressure seems to be genetic, but the cancer is more of the lifestyle effect in my family. My grandfather’s side seems to have high blood pressure and they all seem to get it around their mid 0’s. My great-great-great grandmother died of stomach cancer. She found out in her late 50’s. My grandmother told me that it did not run in her family and believes it may be due to high intake of alcohol.


My great grandmother died of ovarian cancer. It was a sudden death and we are not sure how long she had it. It could have been prevented if she had her annual checkup, but she refuse to go to the doctor and then it was too late. There could have been a numerous of reasons why she ended up with ovarian cancer.


My father died at the age of 4 a year after he was diagnosed with heart disease. He was diagnosed with high blood pressure at the age of 5. My father did not eat healthy and smoked half of his life. He always ate fried foods even though my mother told him it was bad for him. My father was not overweight so this was not a cause in his death.


I believe that I definitely have a chance for high blood pressure, but not very much chance for cancer. I do have regular checkups and often eat a healthy diet. I am not a smoker and I exercise 4 times a week which can decrease my chances. Since I have been in this class, I have changed some of the foods I eat regularly.


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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

What happened to egghead?

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From Egghead to Egghead.com its no yolk so let us eggsplain!


Introduction and Background


Egghead Software was founded in 185 in Spokane, Washington. Egghead was a well-respected retailer of computer software. Egghead enjoyed a period of incredible growth, with wide brand recognition with the quirky character, Professor Egghead.


Eggspansion


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Rapidly expanding from the original store in 185 to over a hundred stores in 188, the company finally went public in 18. By 1, Egghead was considered an industry leader, partnering with Microsoft on the release of Windows .1, and IBM, on the 5.0 upgrade. 500 employees and 180 stores made up Egghead Software, by then, know as ¡§North America¡¦s Software Eggsperts.¡¨


The company relied on the expertise of their sales staff to help customers understand these wonderful new machines. Yet, as the market for personal computers exploded, competitors began experimenting with different business models. As customers became more sophisticated, Egghead held onto the notion that customers needed help in selecting software, and that they would be willing to buy software in a different location than hardware¡Kgiven the high margins on hardware, the computer superstore was born. ¡§Big box¡¨ retailers could afford to aggressively promote (lower margin) software with the hardware purchase. As consumers became more computer-literate, they needed less handholding, and demanded convenience and low prices.


Great Eggspectations Unmet


Egghead watched this fundamental dynamic develop without changing their business model. By 15, the company had changed CEO¡¦s three times, and was searching for a way out of financial troubles. The company had no consistent vision, no strategy for competing with the big box retailers, no strategy for Internet commerce, and revenues and margins were plummeting.


Finally, in 16, George Orban assumed the position of CEO, knowing he had two years to reorganize or liquidate. Clearly, the retailing operation was producing mixed results. A serious comparison of margins by location showed that some stores were bleeding cash. A decision was made to close about half the stores, cut back from ,000 employees to 00, and to look toward the Internet for the business of the future.


Nearing Eggstinction


The decision to transition from Egghead to Egghead.com was a bold strategic move that radically altered the way Egghead operated, but one that ultimately saved the company from bankruptcy and liquidation.


In the analysis that follows, our study group will analyze the internal and external forces that acted upon, and affected Egghead in their metamorphosis from brick and mortar retailer to successful E-tailer. We also have drawn some conclusions, and made some recommendations about where Egghead missed opportunities, and where they have capitalized on them.


Business Mission


The Egghead Company focused on selling software products to customers with a knowledgeable sales staff. The business mission changed in the late 10¡¦s when the company decided to close the brick-and mortar retail stores and begin selling computer products as an Internet business.


SWOT Analysis


Internal Strengths for Egghead


Upon the inception of Egghead in 185 Cictor Alhadeff¡¦s vision was to set-up a customer-friendly environment. His vision was an intricate part of the business and lead to the initial success of the company. The customer-friendly environment provided exceptional customer service and made shopping ¡§less intimidating¡¨ to the computer software customer. Customer service became a strong attribute to the company.


In 1, the organization had a large customer base built upon the premise of long-term software consultants. Direct sales in the corporate setting and government segment of the business provided a large revenue base for the company. The company also had a strong vendor relationship and marketing expertise that provided added strength to the organization. The strong growth in the company was attributed to marketing and allowed Egghead to develop and maintain a strong business relationship with IBM.


Internal Weaknesses for Egghead


The company had a poor management team with no long-term strategy and a lack of vision for the organization as a whole. The organization grew much too fast with a lack of internal controls and proper management expertise to guide the company productively into the future. The company missed many opportunities. They could have moved into the catalog business [they later moved into the catalog business, however, after competition and around the time of the Internet when catalogs shopping became obsolete] created spin-off opportunities, and moved beyond software and into the hardware segment of the market.


After the founder of the company left, the company suffered through three CEO¡¦s within three years. Poor management continued to plague the organization and lead to poor management of inventory and shrinkage became a major problem. The high turnover rate at the Egghead stores resulted in the company finding it impossible to keep a knowledgeable sales staff in the store locations, which was the core value of the company.


When the final decision was made to become and Internet business the company faced an enormous problem. The security was not strong enough on the website and customer credit card numbers where hacked into and this became a major lawsuit against the Egghead Company. This ruined the reputation of the company to the customer and customer loyalty drastically declined.


External Opportunities for Egghead


The opportunities for Egghead were to focus on the Internet business. This would reduce the cost of staffing, maintaining store locations, cutting inventory shrinkage, and this venue would allow products to reach an enormous customer base to grow the business and increase profits. This would allow the company to set growth plans on the new business and create order and structure to the company. Egghead would also keep all future options open and anticipate needed changes on time before competition.


External Threats for Egghead


The external environment was greatly overlooked by Egghead management. External competition sold hardware and Egghead continued selling only software products. The company guaranteed and promoted knowledgeable sales staff. Yet, the company found this harder and harder to find knowledgeable sales help and had a hard time retaining the sales staff to the rapid turnover of the retail environment.


The company was not aware of customer needs. Customers wanted all-in-one shopping mega stores and Egghead continued the same business of small stores and narrow product assortment. As external competition increased in the computer product market, Egghead was not advancing as fast as competition. Clearly, Egghead had no direction for the future. Growing the Egghead business could be a dangerous risk due to the lack of management knowledge or understanding on how to grow the business.


When the company made the bold move to change the business from a brick-and-mortar business to an Internet business this could be seen as a serious risk for the company. The company had a lack of management expertise to run the business in this new venue. Yet, the company new they had to make a serious change and they accepted the risk to make the company successful.


Conclusions and Recommendations


Egghead.com was the former Egghead software store retailer with 180 brick-and-mortar locations. Competition from the mega superstores whittled Egghead down to 80 stores. Ultimately, the retailer decided to shut them down completely and run the business via the Internet.


Egghead Software began in 184 as a retail storefront for computer software, which grew quickly to an extensive chain with nationwide stores. From the beginning there was little discipline with no vision or business strategy. Egghead.com filed for bankruptcy on Aug. 15, 001. Amazon.com acquired the remaining assets of Egghead.com in December 001.


So what happened? Where did the magic go? Moving the Egghead business online was a great vision. Egghead forgot to keep an eye on the most important thing, its loyal customers. There were shortcomings in customer service. Even in the brick-and-mortar world, Egghead had a reputation for turning a deaf ear to customers. There was also a time that hackers broke into Eggheads computer systems and attempted to access customer credit card information, which did damage to Egghead¡¦s reputation.


Eggheads business model of selling new, liquidated, and refurbished goods at super-low prices also fell prey to reality when advertising and co-op marketing dollars failed to materialize in a significant fashion, just as other Internet players in the same period.


The following recommendations apply


„X Continue to maintain customer focus through business transitions.


„X Ensure and maintain security measures on customer data records.


„X Build better senior management teams with long-term focus.


„X Focus on inventory management and security to prevent retail theft.


„X Keep all options open and anticipate change.


„X Focus on strategic vision.





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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

desiress baby

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In the story we see a deep contrast in Armand�s emotions, and ways of expressing these emotions. It says near the start that “Armand is the proudest father in the parish” and that “he hasn’t punished one of them” to “an awful change in her husbands manner, which she dared not ask him to explain” and “the very spirit of Satan seemed suddenly to take hold of him in his dealings with the slaves.” This implies that he was very happy then he changed to very angry and upset. He also changes his manner towards Desiree, as if she has a disease, he avoids her when ever possible and talks to her with “averted eyes”. The strange thing about this is that Armand’s mother is Black (but he didn’t know it at the time) but surely Armand’s father would have taught Armand to be at the very least respectful to Black people.


When Armand refers to the baby he uses the word “the”, this shows that he does not associate himself with the baby and feels emotionally unattached, we assume this is because the baby is black, this shows his deep racism against black people. Also his dramatic change of attitude may be because he had formed an unconscious emotional bond with the baby and as it says the baby and Desiree give him a “unconscious injury”. Meaning that they betrayed him. When Armand talks to Desiree knowing that the baby is not totally white, he does it very coldly, like he was numb from pain, this is also expressed when it says “in a voice which must have stabbed him, if he was human” meaning that he was emotionally void or unattached. Armand rejects the baby because he feels hurt or betrayed by the baby, which he put his faith and love in the baby, and the baby, through no fault of its own, hurt him and humiliated him. He also put his faith into Desiree, this may sound like it is unemotional but its not, by marrying lower down the relative hierarchy and then, in his mind, she brought “unclean” blood into the family.


I feel some of the sympathy in this story should lie with Armand because (even though its because of his own actions) he loses his wife, his baby and then has to deal with his hatred of himself. Desiree seems to have an emotional roller coaster in the story she goes from having “a glow that was happiness itself” to being “miserable enough to die”. Which shows another contrast in the story it shows the difference between Desiree that is soft and non-violent just bottles things up inside, and Armand who will regardless act upon what he feels.





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DESEASE, THE THIEF OF MY DREAMS

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Life has more imaginations than we carry in our dreams. Its full of incredible events and unexpected surprises that change our moods. And sometimes they can even shock us. After that we feel frustrated, tired of living in the world which only yesterday didnt seem to be savage, in the world full of fuss and problems.


Once I changed my attitude to everything, I saw the world differently and liked my life. It happened when I became seriously ill and was afraid of bad consequences. The fear of death changed the way I see, taste, hear, smell, or even think. When the severe pain frustrated me, I couldnt sleep some nights.


Then I thought a lot about life, about what would happen if I changed the worlds.


Now let me tell you how it happened in detail.


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It was a usual shiny day when the city football championship began. We had to play one of the first matches. I was in the high schools football team and I worried a lot because I had never played such an important game when a lot of people watched it. This game meant everything to me because I always was interested in football. Thats why I didnt want to play the first period.


However I was very angry with myself because some guys didnt play well enough and I thought I would do much better if I were in their place. And at last, the first forty-five minutes finished and I replaced one guy who couldnt play well. It seemed he couldnt do it because he was scared that he would make a serious mistake and worried as well as I did since almost a thousand people watched the game. When the second period of the game started, my heart began to beat fast and I felt something strange deep inside that forced me to make a wrong pass.


During those forty-five minutes I ran like a wild animal. However in the end of the game I felt a severe pain in the right side of my stomach. It was the beginning of the trouble, which lasted for about half a year.


When I went to hospital, the doctor said that the problem was the gall bladder and the liver. He added that any sport and hard work was dangerous and told me not to eat fatty products. Besides, he said that I had better take one course of treatment in the hospital that would last about three weeks. But I immediately ignored his advice because I didnt want to miss the classes that were very important since it was my final year at the lyceum.


After that I felt myself as if my hands were tied or like a bird in the cage. I wanted to do what I did before; I wanted to fly and enjoy the life without any limitations in my actions. I wanted to jump, run, and sweat, but for that terrible illness which paralyzed my actions I couldnt play football.


At that hard time I understood the value of healthy life, of being fit and athletic. When I watched a football match on TV or passed by a place where boys played football or other sport I felt pity because it reminded me the days I was happy and enjoyed the game. I had a great desire to kick that football and sometimes I couldnt suffer it any more and played my favorite game, but couldnt get the real satisfaction. I was very sorry for myself then. Even though I swallowed lots of pills, which werent very tasty, and tried out many ways other people recommended, and although I was on diet it, didnt make me feel better. My illness became a global problem for me because it hurt badlywhen I did something. I was ready to starve the whole week and not to eat food which contained fat. Moreover, I lost my weight and became weak. Thats why I easily got tired. However, the most terrible thing was that I had to reject my avorite meals that I missed for a long time.


When I was doing my home assignment, I couldnt concentrate on it. It made me feel more terrible. I spent more time on doing it than I usually did. Since it was my last year at the lyceum, I had to study very hard and prepare for final exams, for the competition in mathematics, and for university at the same time.


Thats why sometimes I was completely exhausted and tired of studying.


Not only did my illness injure me physically but it also hurt my inner world. It changed me; I became depressed, frustrated and angry. Probably its the reason I seemed to behave rudely; most of my friends thought I was selfish and didnt care.


Sometimes it hurt very badly and I didnt know how to kill my pain. I wanted to forget about it by doing something interesting. It worked very often and at that moment fear made me silly. It seemed to me that something terrible would happen.


I was very afraid, especially, when I was alone. Then I thought about life, about my future, my family, my friends, etc., and everything got mixed up in my head in a very complex way. I thought about life without me, about what would happen if I died. Then I understood the value of living, being healthy, and that the life was beautiful. I looked differently at the surrounding world, and I saw many wonderful things that I didnt notice before.


When I recovered from that disease, the robber of my happiness of being fit and living a healthy life, I felt like a free bird that escaped from a cage or like a winner of a long and tiring run. My life became more enjoyable, and I realized that everything changed. I didnt feel trapped by the thief of my dreams any more. Lots of my problems were solved as if I gained extra power. Everything returned to its usual place.


Although my illness lasted for six months, I discovered a lot of important things which make life more interesting. I understood the value of health, of being fit and that life is beautiful even though sometimes we face obstacles on our way to happiness that might seem almost insurmountable. Thats why I think we must be tolerant and optimistic to make our life more enjoyable when we confront difficulties.





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Monday, October 24, 2011

An influential Personevent

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Norbert Zongo was a pioneering journalist and fearless critic of the government in Burkina Faso. He was brutally killed on 1 December 18, along with three companions. Compelling evidence points to the involvement of security officials in his murder. In an interview given in July 17, he himself said, you cannot be everyone’s friend. The full text of this interview, which provides a vivid insight into his commitment to human rights, can be found as an Appendix to this report. This report honours the memory of Norbert Zongo.


ARTICLE 1 adds its voice to the many who have called for the full truth about his murder to be revealed and for those responsible to be brought to justice.





Introduction


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Norbert Zongo, one of Burkina Faso’s best known journalists, was editor-in-chief of an independent weekly newspaper, L’Ind�pendant, and a founding member in 18 of the Mouvement Burkinab� des droits de l’homme et des peuples (MBDHP) [Burkinab� Movement for Human and Peoples’ Rights]. The organisation became a powerful voice for justice and freedom as Burkina Faso embarked on an uncertain, flawed democratic transition. By 18, this independent human rights organisation had representatives in all 45 provinces. As Norbert Zongo argued, the climate of impunity for violators of human rights has remained a fundamental problem in Burkina Faso.


On 1 December 18, he became a victim of the climate of impunity he had fought so hard to dispel. The charred body of Norbert Zongo was found with those of two other passengers in a vehicle about 100 kilometres from the capital, Ouagadougou, on the road to Sapouy. A fourth body was found beside the vehicle. The other victims were his brother, Ernest Zongo, his chauffeur, Ablass� Niki�ma, and a companion, Blaise Ilboudo.


His brutal death is also evidence of how dangerous it can still be to exercise your right to freedom of expression in Burkina Faso. Norbert Zongos murder caused an unprecedented public outcry in Burkina Faso which so shook the government that it agreed within days to convene a commission of inquiry including members of local civil society organisations as well as an international representative from Reporters sans Frontières (RSF) in order to investigate the killings. The commission of inquiry began its investigations in January 1 and made public its findings on 7 May 1. It pointed the finger at a senior officer of the Presidential Guard and lower ranking members of the same force, and suggested that the most likely reason for the murders was Norbert Zongos work as an investigative journalist and, specifically, his investigation into the death in custody under torture of a personal employee of the Presidents


brother. But the Burkina Faso government has yet to take action to implement its recommendations, not least by bringing the perpetrators to justice. The case of Norbert Zongo and his three companions has become the acid test of Burkina Fasos democratic transition. His death has sparked a massive political crisis which the ruling party, the Congrès pour la D�mocratie et la Paix (CDP) [Congress for Democracy and Peace], led by President Blaise Compaor�, is still struggling to resolve.





The circumstances of Norbert Zongos death


On 1 December 18 Norbert Zongo and three companions were killed. There is strong evidence to suggest that the four deaths were the result of Norbert Zongos relentless determination to investigate the circumstances of the death in custody of R. David Ou�draogo, chauffeur of François Compaor�, who is both President Blaise Compaor�s brother and a presidential adviser. R. David Ou�draogo had been arrested with two other domestic employees of François Compaor� in December 17, accused of stealing money from their employers home and taken to the military barracks. It was alleged that he had been tortured to death by members of the Presidential Guard while in their barracks. These allegations were considered credible by the US State Department. () The two other detainees were also badly tortured while in custody.


In the absence of any formal inquiry into the case of R. David Ou�draogo, Norbert Zongo embarked upon his own investigation during 18 through his newspaper, LInd�pendant. An independent commission of inquiry into Norbert Zongos death directly links his murder to these investigations.





The Public Reaction to Norbert Zongos Death


Norbert Zongos death provoked an enormous outburst of public indignation and protest in Burkina Faso. Several people were briefly detained for their part in the demonstrations, which at first focused on attacking the headquarters of the CDP in Ouagadougou and CDP supporters in Norbert Zongos hometown of Koudougou. It then became a joint movement, known as the Collectif des organisations d�mocratiques de masse et des partis politiques [Collective of grassroots democratic organisations and opposition parties] which brought together trade unions, opposition parties, student and human rights groups and which called for a general strike. In mid-December 18, Herman Yam�ogo, leader of the Alliance pour la d�mocratie et la f�d�ration (ADF/RDA), [Alliance for Democracy and the Federation], which is a member of the Collectif, was briefly held at the Gendarmerie during an Organization of African Unity (OAU) summit meeting in Ouagadougou, in an apparent attempt to silence him.


On 18 December 18 the government announced it would set up a commission of inquiry comprising members of civil society and international representatives. However, sectors of the population were not satisfied that the commission of inquiry would be sufficiently independent and so a few days later set up their own inquiry. Eventually a compromise was reached with the government. The proportion of non-governmental representatives was increased and commission of inquiry members were granted immunity from prosecution. However, once the commission of inquiry was established, there were further delays as family members and members of the Collectif withdrew their support until demonstrators were released and the state of siege was lifted throughout the country.





The independent commission of inquirys findings


The 11-person commission of inquiry was set the task of carrying out investigations which would reveal the causes of the death of the four people on 1 December 18. It was formally established on 5 January 1 and began hearing testimonies on 1 February. It collected testimonies from 04 people despite widespread fears of harassment. The commission of inquiry had the power to compel people to testify. The commission of inquiry suffered from the fact that some of its support staff were withdrawn without notice and before its work was completed by involved ministries and the national Gendarmerie. The commission of inquiry was able to profit from the co-operation of a ballistic and incendiary expert who examined the burnt-out vehicle and the ammunition retrieved and a pathologist who together with a forensic doctor carried out autopsies on the four corpses.


On 7 May 1 the independent commission of inquiry made public its conclusions � it stated clearly that Norbert Zongo had been killed for purely political motives because he was a committed investigative journalist. It asserted He defended a democratic ideal and took up the commitment, with his newspaper, to fight for the respect of human rights and justice and against public mismanagement and impunity. The report established that the fire which engulfed the vehicle was not linked to a mechanical fault but had been deliberately caused by pouring an alcohol-based liquid on the car and setting it alight.


It further concluded that Norbert Zongo and his companions were murdered. They had been shot before they and their vehicle were set alight. The commission of inquiry examined various possible explanations for the attack - highway bandits, hunters, cattle raiders, foreign actors, or a crime committed by the opposition or the State. Six members of the R�giment de la s�curit� pr�sidentielle [Presidential Guard] were named as prime suspects in the murder of Norbert Zongo. They were Christophe Kombacere (a soldier), Ousseini Yaro (a soldier), Corporal Wampasba Nacoulma, Sergeant Banagoulo Yaro, Sergeant Edmond Koama and Adjutant Marcel Kafando. The commission of inquiry recommended that judicial proceedings should be instituted against them and stated that, given the barbaric nature of the crime, there should be no limit on the period during which it can be investigated.


Norbert Zongo had, according to the commission of inquirys report, been investigating several topics, which could have been irritating to the authorities. They listed various investigations, including those dealing with economic fraud and electoral malpractice, his concerns about a modification to the Constitution allowing the President to be re-elected indefinitely, and his determination to discover the truth about the R. David Ou�draogo Affair. It stated that the other three victims were killed because they would have otherwise been witnesses to the crime.


Various witnesses testified that Norbert Zongo had previously been threatened. Reference was made to attempts to poison him and to death threats he had received. Speaking of the past, a senior lawyer, Dramane Yam�ogo, stated Norbert used to write that he had received threats and I have no reason to doubt him.


The report also states that if the judicial authorities had properly investigated the circumstances of R. David Ou�draogos death (which the report implies was a direct result of torture), it is possible that the death of Norbert Zongo and his three companions could have been avoided.


It was not until 0 March 1 that it was made public that François Compaor� had been charged on 18 January 1 with the murder of R. David Ou�draogo and with harbouring his body. He was never arrested or detained and remains a free man to this day. The day after the charges were made public, the Appeal Court in Ouagadougou responded to François Compaor�s request that charges be withdrawn by ruling that they were not competent to hear the case and by referring it to a military court. As R. David Ou�draogo had died in custody of members of the Presidential Guard, the judge declared that military jurisdiction was more appropriate. No subsequent action is known to have taken place under any military jurisdiction. The report also noted that the action taken by the authorities in reaction to R. David Ou�draogos death was slow and fell far short of international human rights standards.


The commission of inquiry called for an end to impunity in Burkina Faso. This demand was not new in Burkina Faso. In April 18, the MBDHP submitted a complaint to the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights about the governments failure to investigate and establish accountability for past human rights violations. In October 18, the government agreed to negotiate with the MBDHP measures to resolve the various cases raised in the complaint. () In doing so, the government was acknowledging that the problem of impunity was a real one.





Government reaction to the commission of inquiry findings


In early May 1, the report of the commission of inquiry was handed to the Prime Minister, Mr Kadre Ou�draogo, who said that appropriate measures would be taken in response to the report. In mid-May, Herman Yam�ogo was again arrested after violent demonstrations in Koudougou, the hometown of both Herman Yam�ogo and Norbert Zongo. He was accused of ordering acts of vandalism, but no charges were brought and he was released after three days. His home reportedly had been attacked by a militia group linked to senior government officials. Halidou Ou�draogo, President of the MBDHP and Chairman of the Union Interafricaine des Droits de lHomme (UIDH) [Inter-African Human Rights Union], was also briefly held with Thibaut Nana, President of the Thomas Sankara Association.


On May, shortly after publication, the Secretary General of RSF, Robert M�nard, who had been a member of the commission of inquiry was expelled from the country � although the Minister responsible for Territorial Administration later described the act as being escorted to the border. The same Minister had reportedly told Agence France Presse that the government was holding Robert M�nard morally responsible for the student demonstrations which had followed radio interviews in which he has spoken of the commission of inquirys conclusions.


On 1 May 1, President Blaise Compaor� pledged to reform the Presidential Guard. He also ordered the release of all imprisoned demonstrators except for those who were accused by civil parties of acts of violence and vandalism. He also undertook to ensure that the magistrate investigating the Norbert Zongo dossier would be relieved of other casework so that he could concentrate fully on the case. The Collectif had been instrumental in advocating fundamental reforms to the Presidential Guard. The President also set up a Collège des sages, [college of elders] to deal with the question of past crimes which remained unpunished. On 17 June 1, the Collège des sages called for the arrest of those responsible for the death of R. David Ou�draogo. On the following day, three people were arrested and taken to the Maison dArrêt et de Correction de Ouagadougou (MACO) [Ouagadougou Detention and Correctional Centre], where they remain at the time of writing. Their names had also appeared in the commission of inquirys report as suspects in the murder of Norbert Zongo and his companions. They are


Adjudant Marcel Kafando, an important figure within the Presidential Guard who had been briefly detained while the commission of inquiry was sitting for giving them contradictory alibis;


Sergeant Edmond Koama; and


Ousseini Yaro, a soldier.


However, none of these three men have been formally charged with the murder of R. David Ou�draogo to date and no one has been arrested or charged in connection with the death of Norbert Zongo and his companions.


In July 1, the RSFs Secretary General, Robert M�nard, a member of the commission of inquiry, was prevented from re-visiting Burkina Faso. He had wanted to ascertain the progress made by the government in responding to the recommendations of the commission of inquiry, but the authorities declared his visit ill-timed and likely to compromise the tranquillity of the country. In September 1, the Minister of Communication responded to pressure at the Francophone Summit by saying that an RSF representative would be welcome to visit Burkina Faso. However, when their delegation arrived at the airport on 17 September 1, they were detained by plain-clothes officials who told them the chief of the Gendarmerie had ordered that they immediately reboard the plane. They were escorted to the plane and denied the right to contact their diplomatic representative in Ouagadougou.


The Collège des sages has also recommended that a commission of truth, justice and reconciliation be set up. However, the government has instead created a commission of national reconciliation, with no reference to the vital elements of truth and justice. This has further enraged public opinion in Burkina Faso, which is impatient to see perpetrators of human rights abuses held accountable for their actions.





Conclusion and recommendations


Three people are presently in custody in connection with the murder of R. David Ou�draogo in late 17. They are held being without charge or trial. Perhaps if it had not been for the extensive and sustained public outcry in reaction to Norbert Zongos death, no one at all would have been arrested. They should either be promptly charged and tried in a manner consistent with international fair trial standards or released. However, the fact that François Compaor� remains at liberty suggests that it may be the little men who will pay the price for R. David Ou�draogos death rather than the powerful facing justice. Meanwhile, no one is close to being held accountable for the death of Norbert Zongo and his three companions. It is no exaggeration to claim that Burkina Fasos democratic future may depend on a just resolution of these apparently interconnected murders.


The nomination in June 1 of a Collège des sages to deal with questions of impunity is an important first step towards breaking the cycle of human rights violations which has characterised Burkina Fasos history. It is reported that this group comprising former heads of state, traditional and religious leaders has already received numerous representations covering economic as well as political crimes, implying some public confidence in this body. But it is essential that these investigations are eventually handed over to a judicial body. While such a full and public exploration of the facts can be useful, it must be followed by a full criminal investigation and a clear judicial determination of guilt or innocence. The demand of the Collège des sages for truth and justice as well as reconciliation must be heeded.


In addition to holding past violators of human rights to account, it is essential that there is respect for freedom of expression if matters of public interest are to come to light. It is therefore worrying that journalists continue to be detained. On 15 September 1, Paulin Yam�ogo, editor in chief of the weekly San Finna, was called to the Office of State Security and detained. In a recent editorial the newspaper had published an article entitled When Blaise Compaor� rolls out the red carpet for the coup-plotters () which reportedly criticised the governments gangster-like administration and spoke of dissatisfaction within the military. He was held for a few days before being released without charge. Respect for the right to freely express one opinions and impart information is an essential component of respect for human rights. In particular, freedom of information legislation would facilitate future access to official information by the media and might remove the need for the successors to Norbert Zongo to take such enormous risks in pursuit of the truth.








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Sunday, October 23, 2011

trial process

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Criminal Entrapment is the creating of a situation by the police and encouraging an individual to commit a crime that he wouldn’t have otherwise done. Suspected Criminals often use this defense when somehow the police have been involved in the crime they have committed. However, it is imperative that in order to be released under this circumstance that one must prove that if not provoked by the police. In the example case, United States v. Russell, it is easily determined that this does not classify as entrapment. The suspect was buying supplies for manufacturing his drugs from an undercover agent. However, Russell had been producing these drugs before the undercover agent was available to do business with. Therefore, it was ruled that none of the agents’ participatory activities amounted to entrapment.


The Insanity plea is another plea that accused criminals often take. As stated in the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 184, in all federal courts a defendant must be shown to have a severe mental disease, and can’t appreciate nature or quality of wrongfulness of his acts. The Defendant has the burden of proof. However, it is different among states. Each state has its own laws ranging from the lack of substantial capacity to control one’s behavior, unable to understand the wrongfulness of the act, or in some states both. Many states are more lenient than others as shown in the Case of Judge Kowtna in New York. He was able to make a plea of insanity and serve a short time in a hospital even though he had shown no evidence of mental incapability in the future. However, Andrea Yates in Texas, who had a history of mental illness, was not granted the plea of insanity. Many people think that this has more to do with money and political power than the overall opinions and doings of the states. A person with money and political power has the capabilities to afford better, or more useful, doctors and has friends in high places that can help them out in a bind. This truly does seem to be the case. How else could an judge in New York be released on insanity when so many poorer individuals he himself has sent to jail refusing the insanity plea.


A third defense is the necessity defense. An example of this is the medical necessity of marijuana and the legality of raising it. Raising marijuana in the United States is seen as illegal in the eyes of the federal government. However, nine states, including California, have laws within themselves legalizing the growing of marijuana for medical purposes. In the case against Ed Rosenthal, he is charged in federal court for the illegal growing and selling of marijuana although in his home state of California it is legal for medical purposes. He was sentenced to one day in jail because the judge credited him with time already served and believed that the defendant really did not think that what he was doing was illegal. The judge warned that this case will now serve as a notice that a state or municipality cannot legally authorize medical marijuana. Although this practice is legalized in some states, it is illegal in the United States and anyone who grows marijuana will be prosecuted.


It is known that defendants have the right to call available witnesses of their choosing. However, with the recent terrorist happenings, it is debated whether or not exceptions can be made. An example of this is seen in the Moussaoui case. Moussaoui is an admitted member of Al-Quaeda. However, he denies having any involvement in the attacks that happened September 11, 001. He feels that he should have access to Binalshibh, an Al-Quaeda leader who he feels will be able to prove his innocence. Assistant U.S. Attorney General Michael Chertoff argues that it creates too high of a national security risk allowing someone like Binalshibh be accessible in trial. However, the defense says that by blocking access to Binalshibh, Moussaoui would be denied a fair trial. Binalshibh and other Al-Quaeda members are the only people capable of proving that Moussaoui was not involved in the September 11th attacks. The Justice department feels that allowing this access would perhaps allow the disclosure of classified information. “The courts have not yet ruled on the merits of the issue -- access to an alien seized abroad as an enemy combatant in the midst of war.”


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In the U.S. Supreme court case Wiggins v. Smith, the Supreme court ruled that inexperienced lawyers failed their client at trial. The Supreme Court noted that the Constitution guarantees the right to an effective lawyer. At the sentencing phase, defense attorneys main purpose is to try to save the life of their client. With the background of Mr. Wiggins being so horrendous, he would have most probably been given life in prison instead of the death penalty. However, his attorneys failed to inform the jury of his background thereby leaving the jury no reason not to give the death penalty. The judge, however, declared that the lawyers’ performance was not unconstitutionally poor, that they had just understandably focused their efforts on other aspects of the case. Mr. Wiggins conviction stands, but he has been granted a new sentencing hearing.


Quitman County, Mississippi is now in the process of suing the state because it says it cannot afford to provide defendants with anything more than assembly-line justice. The county is claiming that they have the responsibility to represent the poor, yet the state does not supply them with enough funds to make this possible. In fact, the state provides them with no funds for the defense of the indigent in no capital cases compared to other states that pay for much if not all of the expenses of their cases. Because of this, many counties across the U.S. are stuck using funding from their own taxes to pay for the cases and necessities of cases. This barely pays for the initial visit with the client let alone the paperwork and other expenses of the case. There are many other states in the mid-west and the deep south that also have this problem with funding. Many lawyer’s that do work as public defenders receive pay as low as $1,50 a month. Because of this, many lawyers are forced to hold bulk meetings with many clients and urge them to take plea bargains that defendants with personal lawyers might not be urged to take. Therefore, this lack of funds make it barely possible to call the representative that clients receive in places like Quitman County “legal work”. This Quitman County case is the first in which the plaintiff is the government itself. However, it is thought that with the poor funding of many other states, there will be more to follow. This would be the only adequate way to make representation for the poor possible.


Ohio also has a problem with funding. In one of its counties, Vinton County, a judge recently denied a death penalty case due to the lack of funding in the county. Paying for this trial would deplete most of the general funds budget of this small county. In addition, this funding problem would account for the defendant, Gregory McKnight, to not receive due process of the law. The judge states that a risk like this is unacceptable in a case of the magnitude. The state has offered financial support that would release the financial burden of the prosecution, but it is not capable for doing the same for the defense. Ohio Supreme Court Justice Paul Pfeifer stated that this shows a particular defect in the system. It is also noted that it is not unusual for a prosecution to agree to a life sentence instead of the death penalty because of lack of funding for adequate council.


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the giver

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Think of a community that tries to make a perfect society. The Giver is a book about a society that strives for Utopia. While reading this book two opinions were formed. One that this community is perfect and the other that it is imperfect. It could be perfect in the way that no one has to worry about doing the wrong thing or being criticized by anyone. But another person would think it was imperfect because you don?t make your own decisions. Someone controls everyone other than himself or herself. Then also no one has feelings, which can be good, because you don?t have to worry about being sad or depressed but you also never can feel good things like love. Meaning different opinions can conclude that The Givers community is perfect and in perfect in everyway.


Some people control who their partners are going to be, which clothes they wear, which jobs they get, the time they eat, how many kids they have, and what time they have to be home. They have to be with someone who is the same as them; they don?t choose their own partners. They choose their jobs, by seeing what which jobs they are good at. They can only apply for two children, a girl or a boy. They also have to be asleep at the same time. So you still have no choices, which is good because it?s easier but someone is still controlling you.


They modify the environment. They have no weather that way everyday will remain the same. They have birthmothers so they won?t over populate the society. Also they don?t have big machinery. So they won?t breathe in pollution.


They control their feelings by taking pills for stirrings; they have percision of language. They have precision of language by not being able to say some words. For example they can?t say love or any bad words. They give the people pills to control their feelings (stirrings) so that they won?t have lustful dreams or feel desire to be with other people of the opposite sex. Also no one has any memories. They control their memories by having all the memories are received by one person. This includes everything happiness, pain, and even war.


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As you can see the community of The Giver is very controlling. The people in don?t have freedom of speech and they are not able to make any decisions on their own. They all are the like robots. Someone tells them to do something and they do it right away no questions. But this could be a good thing because that you don?t have to make decisions on your own. You also don?t have to worry about doing the wrong thing. In my opinion it is imperfect because I think that everyone should be able to make their own decisions whenever they need to. This also allows people to learn from their mistakes. This shows that different opinions form different ideas on how The Givers community is perfect and imperfect.





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Saturday, October 22, 2011

THE RAINBOW

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LONG LONG TIME AGO ,THERE IS A VERY BEAUTIFUL HILL.IN THE HILL,THERE IS A LONGSTANDING TEMPLE.IN THE TEMPLE,THERE LIVES A ELDER MONK.HE LIVES HERE UHIMSELF.EVERY DAY ,HE GET UP WHEN THE SUN RISE UP AND GO TO BED WHEN THE MOON RISE UP.ALTHOUGH HE IS ALONE,BUT HE NEVER FEEL LONGLY.AT DAYTIME,HE WATER THE FLOWER,FEED THE CHICKEN.HE PLANT A LOT OF VEGETABLES AND FRIUTS, SUCH AS CUCUMBER,CABBAGE,LEEK,CHIVES,POTATO,TOMATO,APPLE TREE,PEACH TREE AND SO ON. BUT HE NEVER EAT THE CHICKEN.HE ONLY EAT THE VEGETABLE DISH BECAUSE HE IS A MONK.ALTHOUGH THERE IS ONLY HE HIMSELF.BUT HE IS VERY UNREMITTING.


THE MONK HAS A CAT AND A DOG AS HIS PET.THE CAT IS A WHITE CAT NAMED SNOW.BECAUSE THE MONK BORN IN THE SOUTH AND HE NEVER SEE THE SNOW.HE GESS THE SNOW MUST BE QUEIT WHITE JUST AS HIS LITTLE CATTY .SO HE CALL THE CAT SNOW. THE DOG IS WHITE TOO AND VERY SMALL.HE WILL NEVER GROW UP.HE IS VERY LOVELY.HIS NAME IS MIMI. EVERY NIGHT ,SNOW AND MIMI SLEEP WITH THE MONK.THEY EAT THE VEGETABLE DISH WITH THE MONK.


UNDER THE HILL ,THERE IS A SMALL VILLAGE.THERE LIVES SOME FARMERS AND SOME HUNTERS.THEY ALL KNOW THE MONK LIVE IN THE HILL.AND THEY SOMETIMES BUY THE CHICKEN FROM THE MONK.TO HELP THE MONK.THEY ALLWAYS PAY HIM THE DOUBLE .BUT THE MONK NEVER KNOW .BECAUSE HE NEVER GET DOWN THE HILL,HE KNOW NOTHING ABOUT THE WORLD.


WHEN DAY ,IT IS RAINING HARD .BUT AFTER NOON ,THE RAIN STOPED VERY SUDDENLY.AND A RAINBOW RISING UP FROM THE TEMPLE.IT LOOKS LIKE A BRIDGE FROM THE TEMPLE TO THE HAVEN.ALL THE VILLAGER CAME OUT FROM THEME HOME TO SEE THAT.THE RAINBOW BECOME MORE AND MORE CLEAR.AND THEN ,THE MONK CAME OUT OF THE TEMPLE AND WALKING ON THE RAINBOW!YES!HE IS WALKING ON THE RAINBOW!AND DISAPPEARED AT THE SKY.THE VILLAGERS ALL GET DOWN ON THEIR KNEELS.THEY KNOW THE MONK BECOME THE IMMORTAL.HIS SINCERE DEAIRE MOVE THE GOD!THEY STAY THERE FOR A LONG TIMEN .THEY KNOW THE MONK WILL BLESS AND PROTECT THEME FOREVERY!


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the japanese quince

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Nature in Literature


From birth until death nature has an immense affect upon the development of everyone¡¦s life. The same idea is demonstrated by the authors William Blake in his poem ¡§Introduction¡¨ and by John Galsworthy in his short story The Japanese Quince. In both works it is seen how the power of nature alters.


Symbolism in The Japanese Quince


Although there is very little exterior action in John Galsworthys very short, short story, The Japanese Quince, the perceptive reader knows that an opportunity has been passed by, and that the protagonist has chosen to stay closed to the beauty of life rather than risk change. Some readers may no.


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Quote


Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow it was hotter then a black dog suffered on a summers day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Mens stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three-oclock naps, and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum. Page 5


Analysis


The descriptive detail the narrator gives paints a vivid picture of the town of Maycomb. This gives us some insight on how Scout feels about Maycomb. This also gives the setting for which the story is taking place. The mood of this passage emphasizes on the town being quiet and somewhat dull because an occurrence will take place that will change the entire town of Maycomb. The calming mood of the town contrasts with a climatic event that is soon to occur.





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Friday, October 21, 2011

Early Greek Algebra

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Overview


The word algebra came from an Arabic _expression, al-jabr wa’l muqabala, which was the title of the first Arabic text on algebra. Al-Khwarizmi wrote the book in the ninth century A.D. According to Al-Khwarizmi, algebra was “ the art of reducing and solving equations” (van der Waerden 70). From the very beginning of its introduction, algebra was influenced by geometry. For example, the Babylonians view unknown quantities as lengths and widths and their products as areas. The product of two same numbers was called square.


Greek algebra was greatly influenced by the Babylonians because Pythagoras brought it from there. The Pythagoreans studied Babylonian’s algebra and used the Babylonian’s method for solving equations in Greek algebra. Euclid recorded Pythagorean’s findings. Euclid’s solutions to problems were similar to Babylonian’s solution to similar problems. Euclid rewrote Babylonian’s problems so that the problems do not include fractions or irrational numbers. Plato and Euclid did not use fractions or irrational numbers, only Eratosthenes, Diophantus, and Archimedies. There is evidence that the Pythagoreans discovered irrational numbers, but since they did not believe them, they pretended that they did not discover it.


Greek algebra was an integration of geometry and algebra; it was referred to as geometric algebra. Early Greek algebra of the Pythagoreans and Euclid, Archimedes, and Apollonius was geometric because the Greeks had difficulties with irrational and even fractional numbers. Geometric algebra consists of “line segments, areas, and volumes [which] are strictly kept apart” (van der Waerden 74). The problems and solution in Greek geometric algebra was written in the rhetorical style, where every word is written out. In geometric algebra, the “fundamental relation between line segments or between areas is equality” (van der Waerden 76). There are three fundamental operations in this algebra the sum of two line segments, the sum of two polygons, and the product of two line segments.


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The first operation The sum of two line segments a and b is a line segment c, which can be divided into two parts a’ and b’ that are equal to a and b respectively.


Modern notation a + b = c




















The second operation The sum of two polygons A and B is a polygon C, which can be divided into two parts A’ and B’ that are equal to A and B.


Modern notation A + B = C














The third operation The product of two line segments a and b is a rectangle R contained by two line segments a’ and b’ that are equal to a and b.


Modern notation a x b = R


























When finding the product of line segments of a and b, the line segments are not always perpendicular so they need to be replaced with line segments a’ and b,’ which is perpendicular and forms a rectangle. The rectangle is “an object of algebraic operations” (van der Waerden 77).


Geometric Algebra


Geometrical algebra is the area of mathematics that deals with geometric concepts and proofs in algebraic applications. Although Asia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt had the ideas of geometrical algebra, classical Greek mathematicians are normally credited with its development. The Greeks used this geometric algebra because they used a rhetorical style, which limited their ability to work out algebraic problems step by step. They would apply algebraic problems to geometric shapes�this technique also avoided the explanations of irrational numbers. The Greeks knew that the irrational numbers worked, but they did not believe in their existence. Therefore this method of geometric algebra was developed.


When we geometrically solve a quadratic equation, we are doing geometrical algebra. Greeks did algebra on a geometric basis.


1


For example


Ö 1


The Greeks never solved algebraic equations in our symbolic style. They would work out several physical examples using geometry. With trial and error, the Greeks were able to show that their answers worked. The Greek period of Algebraic history runs up till the Romans conquered them around 400 ce.











Diophantus of Alexandria (Syncopated Style)


Diophantus is a famous Greek mathematician, well known for his work in algebra. For several centuries, rhetorical algebra was the only algebra until Diophantus of Alexander pioneered syncopated algebra. He decided that rhetorical style was clumsy, so he started making abbreviations; and it was useful with powers up to the sixth and their reciprocals. Most people say it is not a whole lot better than the rhetorical style, but it gives a different perspective.


Diophantus wrote a book called Arithmetica that tremendously influenced the number theory and algebra. The word arithmetic comes from the Greek word arithmetike, which is composed of the Greek word for number (arithmos) and for science (techne). The notation in Arithmetica helped move algebraic notation from rhetorical to syncopated, as well as influencing the evolution of some individual symbols. In Arithmetica “he gives an ingenious treatment of indeterminate equations usually two or more equations in several variables that have an infinite number of rational solutions” (NCTM, 40). His method is clever, however it lacks the development of a systematic method for finding general solutions. An example of Diophantus’ syncopated algebra











or


x + 8 x � (5 x + 4) = 44


This is the syncopated style of writing equations. Syncopated style is where everything is abbreviated.





Rhetorical Algebra (Style)


Rhetorical algebra can be traced back to both early Babylonian and Egyptian. This stage of algebra refers to the stage with when everything was written in words without the use of mathematical symbols. This type of algebra is also said to be a verbal or oral algebra since they wrote out everything they said. This was also known as prose algebra because of the written words.


Since the people of this period were limited to writing material and their ability to write, most obtainable material were clay tablets. With the clay tablets they simply wrote out exactly what they said. One of the earliest books written in rhetorical or prose algebra included the following problem “ten and thing to be multiplied by thing less ten.” If they had symbols as the symbols today the problem would be written as (x + 10) (x - 10) = x[sup]-100.


Since, it is cumbersome to write out each step in words, rhetorical algebra ended as symbolic algebra evolved. Rhetorical algebra lasted until the 16th century when symbolic algebra became more renown. Difficulties are usually encountered in reading the problem in rhetorical algebra because of the non-existence of a standardized, efficient symbol.


The rhetorical style used by the Greeks consisted of five simple steps


state the problem


give the data


give the answer


explain the solution


check the answer





An Example


1. state the problem


Length, width. I have multiplied length and width, thus obtaining area 5. I have added length and width . Required; length and width.


. Give the data


[Given] the sum; x+y = k


5 the area. xy = P


. Give the answer


18 length, 14 width


4 Explain the solution


One follows this method


Take half of [this gives 16] k/


16x16= 56 (k/)


56-5= 4 (k/)-P= t


The square root of 4 is (k/)-P= t


16+ =18 length (k/)+t = x


16- =14 width (k/)-t = y


5. check the answer


Multiply 18 length by 14 width (k/ + t)(k/ � t)


18x14= 5 area k/4-t= P = xy





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