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Wednesday, October 19, 2011

present tenses

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PRESENT TENSES


Present Simple


FORM rd person sing͖ -s


͖ -es wash, mix, go


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͖ -fly � flies; stay � stays


USE


1) to denote truths


· habitual a frequency adverb is often used


-he smokes 40 cigarettes a day.


-he usually takes the bus to work.


· general, recurrent


-English people drink a lot of tea.


· mathematical, scientific, geographical


-water boils at 100 degrees.


-the river Po flows into the Adriatic Sea.


· permanent actions


-I live in Milan - vs - I’m living in Milan (now-temporary)


) to give instructions / directions


-first you take eggs and then you mix them with…


) in narrative to describe summarised events


· journalism


-“Bush addresses Congress”


· plot summaries � film, book, historical table


-In Chapter 1 Susan meets Greg and…


-178. The French revolution begins.


4) timetable future per orari di partenza/arrivo mezzi di trasporto; inizio/fine spettacoli…


-the train leaves at o’clock.


-he takes the 1st train tomorrow.


5) suggerimenti, inviti alla forma negativa


-WHY DON’T YOU…?


6) WHAT DO YOU DO?͖What’s your job?


7) with “state” verbs


· percezione involontaria hear, see, smell, seem, appear, taste


· volontà want, need, prefer,wish


· sentimento love, like, dislike, hate


· possesso have (got), belong, own, possess


· cost, be, depend, matter, exist, weigh = pesare, contain, include


· believe, know, suppose, think, understand.


N.B. Some of these verbs can be used in continuous forms with a change of meaning


Ø I’m having breakfast. (=eat)


Ø I’m tasting the soup to check if it needs more salt. (=sample)


Ø I’m thinking of buying a new car (=consider)


Present Continuous


FORM ie͖y lie/lying


c͖ck mimic/mimicking


run͖running


USE


1) a temporary action - now -; a continuous action already begun not yet complete


-he’s studying.


) a temporary action begun recently, continuing, but not expected to be permanent


-I’m living in Milan.


) temporary habit not necessarily taking place at the moment


-I’m studying Japanese.


4) a regrettable habit (“ALWAYS”)


-he’s always losing his keys!


5) to describe a photo


6) azione programmata per il futuro (appointment, arranfement already made)


-I’m seeing the doctor tomorrow morning.


-how long are you staying in Rome?


7) formal (letters)


Ø I am LOOKING FORWARD TO + ing da ora in poi, verso il futuro


I have been looking forward to meeting her fine- nn vedevo l’ora…


Ø TO BE HOPING TO + ing


PAST TENSES


Simple past


FORM cooked � worried � slipped � mimicked


USE


1) single finished action with clear time marker


-I played tennis yesterday


-I left my shopping bag on the train (= a definite place suggests a definite time)


- N.B.I was born on 11th August,18.


-


) past habits/states ( a time expression is usually necessary )


-I always got up early in those days.


-I rode a horse when I was young.


-I lived in Paris FOR several years before movin to London---not any longer


N.B. USED TO past habit vs present


-I used to drink tea when I was young but now I prefer coffee./didn’t use- did


you use to?/


WOULD past habit (usually in writing) but not in contrast with the present


-I would always make my mum a cup of tea after lunch.


Present Perfect


1) recent event without a definite time (sottointeso just)


-I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.


N.B.- I bought a new bracelet l’attenzione è sull’ azione


-When/where did you buy it? l’attenzione è sul luogo, tempo in cui l’ azione, ormai


conclusa, è avvenuta.


) event whose result is evident in the present


-I’ve broken my arm, as you can see.


-I’ve washed the car (=now it’s cleaned)


) past action with present relevance


-I’ve studied French (=so I can translate this passage)


-I’ve seen the film (=so I can tell you about it)


-INTERVIEW-RELEVANT EXPERIENCEWhy are you suitable for this job? Because I


have studied/I have worked…


4) action begun in the past incomplete - it still goes on FOR � SINCE


-I have lived in Milan for � since…


5) with ADVERBS of FREQUENCY


· always � often � generally � usually � sometimes � rarely/seldom � hardly ever(-)


never (-) � ever (?)


· still � just � already � yet (-) � almost � recently


-I’ve just finished it.


Ma-I’ve finished it recentlty-yet(-)


-I still have seen her.


6) time span not yet over


· this morning / afternoon / week / century…


-I’ve seen her this morning (she’s probably still here)vs I aw her earlier (she could be


anywhere now)


· so far/up to now (the job hasn’t been too tiring)


· all day


· in my life


· in the last few days / weeks


· in this century


· N.B.It’s the 1st time…


7) I HAVE BEEN to Bath times this week(=sono già tornato)


I HAVE GONE to Bath today. I’m coming back at 6(=sono ancora a B.)


8) with a future meaning following WHEN � AFTER � AS SOON AS � (FUT. ANTER)


-I’ ll come when I have finished.


Present Perfect Continuous �Past Perf Cont-


USE


1) emphasises the length of time of an action. The action is NOT COMPLETED � still goes on � or recently finished.


-I’ve been baking biscuits ALL AFTERNOON.


-(So far) I’ve backed 50 biscuits altogether.(= giving the number of actions suggests


completion)


-I’ve lived in this house FOR 5 years = I’ve been living in this house FOR 5 years.


MA


PRES.PERF.CONT con How long, sit, lie, wait, stay


) explanation of a present situation - no…perchè… -


-I won’t shake hands, I’ve been gardening.


-I’ve been digging the garden. That’s why I’m so dirty!


-Why are you so tired? I haven’t been sleeping very well (=E’ un pò di tempo che…)


) explanation of a period of time just finishing


-I’m sorry I’m late. I’ve been talking to my boss.


-Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for ages.


-They have been promising a new metro line for years but although they have been


talking and talking nothing has been done / they haven’ t done anything.


4)I’ VE BEEN LOOKING FORWARD TO + ING


I’ VE BEEN MEANING/INTENDING TO VISIT for ages but I’m very busy implies


that the action has not been done.











Past Continuous


1) past action in progress (also descriptions); often contrasted with a sudden event in the Simple Past (=contemporary)


-Henry was in his bedroom. He was reading a book.


-When I arrived, Tom was talking on the phone.


-While I was studying, the phone rang.


) un’ azione programmata per il futuro in relazione a un momento passato


-He said he was going to work by car the following day.


) past annoying habit (“ALWAYS”)


-John was always ringing me up!


4) Polite I WAS WONDERING IF you could help me!


I WAS HOPING you might help me find the answer.


Uncertainty I WAS THINKING OF HAVING a party next week.


5) an action in the past that continued over a specified period of time ----//////---now


-I was watching TV all day.


-I was studying between p.m. and 7 p.m..


6) demanding an account of an activity - not permitted -


-What were you doing in my room? I was looking for a book.


7) abandoned idea / proposal


-I was hoping to…


-I was planning to go there but…


Past Perfect


1) past before past


Ø before the time considered -She had gone to bed BEFORE MIDNIGHT.


Ø Before another action always belonging to the past -When she had finished her work, she relaxed.


) with frequency adverbs


) as soon as


it was the first time


if I had studied…


I wish I had known…


THE FUTURE


Will


1) predictions (vs to be going to dove vedi la causa)


-Computer will never replace teachers.


-Don’t worry, it won’t rain tomorrow!


-PROBABLY / PERHAPS it will become dirtier if nothing will be done.


) dopo verbi di opinione, supposizione, certezza, speranza (think, suppose, be sure, hope…)


-I hope you’ll come in time for the performance.


) spontaneous, unplanned decision (decisione presa al momento e non programmata vs to be going to)


-It’s raining! I’ll take my umbrella.


-the phone is ringing. I’ll go and answer!


4) azioni future non dipendenti dalla volontà di nessuno


-I’ll be 18 in July.


-Will there be many people at the lecture?


5) nelle dubitative / interrogative indirette


-I don’t doubt that she’ll pass the exam.


-I don’t know if he’ll come.


6) offerta, promessa, minaccia, richiesta


7) deduction


-Is that the phone? It’ll be (=MUST BE) Andrew.


Timetable Future (pres + time marker)


-The bus leaves at .


Diary Future (pres.cont + time marker)


1) a plan, an appointment already fixed � nel vicino futuro


-I’m going to the doctor tomorrow.


-I’m leaving for France tonight.


) to ask about social arrangements


-Ware you doing anything tonight?


To Be Going To � Future of Intention


1) l’ intenzione di compiere un’ azione


-What are you going to do after your diploma?


-I’m going to fix the TV tomorrow.


) un’ azione imminente che ci si aspetta che avvenga o che sta per avvenire (prediction but we can see the cause of the event)


-It’s cloudy It’s going to rain again!


Future Continuous


1) un’azione in corso nel momento futuro in considerazione


-At this time tomorrow I’ll be travelling to London.


) un’azione futura che rientra nel normale corso degli eventi - as usual…-


- As usual, I’ll be meeting my relatives next Sunday.


Future Perfect





1) un’azione futura che sarà già finita nel momento futuro considerato (BY; BY+PRECISE TIME OR DATE, BY THEN, BY THAT TIME…)


- I’ll have finished by 5 tomorrow.


Future Perfect Continuous


1) to express a predicted duration of a future action


-At this time tomorrow I’ll have been travelling FOR 4 hours.


FUTURO nelle SUBORDINATE


IF, UNLESS, WHEN, AS SOON AS, AS LONG AS, TILL


1) FUTURO SEMPLICE + Pres


- I won’t be there when you come back.


) FUTURO ANTERIORE +Pres.Perfect


- As soon as you have finished, we’ll go out.


FUTURE in the PAST = CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE





-he said that he would never marry Jane.


-the sky was blue, the sea was calm. It would certainly be a pleasant crossing.


CONDITIONALS


1) 0 Conditional always true; if = when(ever)


-If I drink coffee in the evening, I don’t sleep.


-When there was snow, we went skiing.


REMEMBER If she’s still having a shower/If she’s still here/If she hasn’ t finished, she won’t go away.


) 1st Conditionals realistic / logical possibility


- If I study, I’ll / can do well my exam.


-If it rains, we’ll take an umbrella.


) nd Conditional hypothetical (dreams, advice)


- If I were you, I’d tell her the truth.


-If he asked me nicely, I might/could give it to him. = vague possibility


4) rd Conditional unreal/hypothetical past situation regret


- If my brother had studied more, he would/might have become famous.


-If only I had studied more I’d have done better (=regret)


THE PASSIVE


FORM the appropriate form of the verb “to be”+ past participle del verbo transitivo - ma non di I like-love pizza �


TEMPO FORMA ATTIVA FORMA PASSIVA


Simple present makes is made


Present continuous is making is being made


Simple past made was made


Past continuous was making was being made


Present perfect has made has been made


Past perfect had made had been made


Simple future will make will be made


Future perfect will have made will have been made


Going-to form is going to make is going to be made


Present conditional would make would be made


Perfect conditional would have made would have been made


Present infinitive to make to be made


Perfect infinitive to have made to have been made


Present participle-gerund making being made


Perfect participle having made having been made


USE


1) when the action is more important than the agent. The agent is actually


-unknown my bike has been stolen.


-obvious Mr Jones was arrested.


) processes, routines (series of actions)


-How is wine made? The grapes are gathered in the fields…


-How does the Royal Mail work? First a letter is written…


) divieti, istruzioni


-smocking is not allowed here.


-students are asked not to smoke.


4) reporting � current events/crime/historical events


-the presidential election in the USA has been won by Bush.


NOTA BENE


1) in colloquial English “to be” is often replaced by “to get”


-My car got broken into again yesterday.


) make (=to force) and ask require “to”


-They made David work hard---David was made to work hard.


) “let” becomes “allow”





4) HAVE STH DONE


Ø per servizi resi da terzi I had new tiles put on the roof.


Ø Misfortunes happened to us caused by an unspecified person Peter had his car stolen last year.


5) NEEDS DOING per indicare una persona o cosa che necessita di un servizio


-The floor is dirty. It needs scrubbing.


6) passivo dei verbi con doppio accusativo to bring, to give, to lend, to offer, to promise, to send, to tell


- the director will offer him the role of Othello.


He will be offered the role of Othello.


- They didn’t tell Laura the truth.


Laura wasn’t told the truth.


7) il si passivante, per evitare THEY / PEOPLE, con verbi quail SAY, BELIEVE, UNDERSTAND. (=nell’ attivo con lo stesso tempo tra princ. e subord.)


-People say he is in debt.


It is said to be in debt.




















WISHES / REGRETS


-I want / would like / would have liked to go


I want /would like you to go


-I prefer to go to the cinema than watch/instead of watching /to watching TV.


I prefer you to go


…Altri modi per rendere il condizionale - pres e pass � di prefer


· I’d rather (not) go --------- I’d rather have gone


· I’d rather you went-------- I’d rather you had gone


· I’d sooner you went-------- I’d sooner you had gone


-You’d better (not)go=should=faresti meglio a


-It’s (high) time you went.


-If only I hadn’t broken it.= regret


-Suppose / Imagine you were rich, what would you do?


-Desideri realizzabili I hope to see you/I hope you won’t be late


VS


WISH


PRESENTE


· I wish I had a new car-I wish I were rich.


· I wish it wasn’t snowing.


N.B. ANNOYING HABIT or A SPECIFIC ACTION YOU WOULD LIKE TO HAPPEN


· I wish you wouldn’t chew gum all the time.


· I wish the police would do sth about these people.


FUTURO


· I wish I could do that tomorrow.


· I wish I didn’t have to get up early tomorrow.


PASSATO


· I wish I had listened to her-I wish it hadn’t been snowing on my wedding day.


N.B. ANNOYING HABIT or A SPECIFIC ACTION YOU WOULD HAVE LIKED TO HAPPEN


· I wish you wouldn’t have talked all the time.


Verbi che reggono �ing


Con preposizione


to apologise for scusarsi per


to be afraid of aver paura di


to be keen on essere appassionato di


to be used to essere abituato a


to get used to abituarsi a


to be tired of essere stanco di


to feel like essere disposto a-aver voglia di


to give up smettere di


to insist on insistere di


to think of pensare di


to thank s.o. for ringraziare qlc per


to burst out scoppiare a


to avoid Evitare di


to admit he admits being wrong he admits that he’s wrong Ammettere di


to be busy essere occupato a


to deny negare di


to consider considerare di


to practise esercitarsi a


to enjoy divertirsi a


to miss avere la mancanza di


to imagine immaginare di


to keep (on) continuare a


to help aiutare a


to mind dispiacere/avere qlc in contrario


to resist resistere a


to risk rischiare a


to suggest he suggested going he suggested that we went suggerire di


Espressioni come…


can’t waste time non poter sprecare tempo a


can’t bear/stand non sopportare


can’t help (MAcan’t do without sth) non potere fare a meno di


it’s no use-no good è inutile-non serve


it’s ( is not ) worth (non) valere la pena


N.B. Se il soggetto è diverso dalla principale͖V + AGG.POSS o GENITIVO o COMPL PERS + ing


-I can’t stand his/Paul’s/him snoring.


VERB +ING +TO


hate � like � dislike � love - prefer azione abituale-I love cooking. azione occasionale-What would you like to go?


forget � remember past event-I don’t remember learning walk future event-obligation-Remember to do it!


try suggestion-Try taking an aspirine,you’ll be better. try and fail-I tried to warn him (but…)


go on continue-she went on working even though it was late. aggiungere col dire


mean comportare,significare-leaving tomorrow will mean getting up early. avere l’ intenzione-I meant to phone you but i forgot.


stop give up-I stopped smoking. smettere per fare qualcos’altro-I stopped to buy some coffee.


to be sorry (for se �ing)/ regret azione passata-I regret not phoning you but I was late about what’s going to be said-I regret to tell you that you have failed


Verbi con infinito + to


can’t afford non potersi permettere


agree


appear apparire


arrange


ask chiedere di


choose scegliere di


decide decidere di


fail


hope


prepare prepararsi a


promise promettere di


manage


seem sembrare


refuse rifiutare di


wait aspettare di


threaten minacciare di


Prepositional Phrases


vote for votare per


ask for sth chiedere per avere qlc


blame s.o. for incolpare qlc di


warn s.o. of sth avvisare qlc di qlc


remind s.o. to do sth ricordare a qlc di fare qlc


insist on insistere a


rely on contare su


apologise to s.o. for sth scusarsi con qlc di qlc


good at bravo in


It is good/kind of you to do sth è gentile da parte tua fare qlc


Participles


1) as adjectives


-I’m a boring person----the stolen wallet (=passive meaning)


) participles clause dopo AFTER e BECOUSE; per sostituire clauses con when e le relative


-Driving home i listened to…


-Having arrived home late,he went out for supper pres.perf.participle -se 1 azione è finita prima


di un’altra.


PRESENT TENSES


Present Simple


FORM rd person sing͖ -s


͖ -es wash, mix, go


͖ -fly � flies; stay � stays


USE


1) to denote truths


· habitual a frequency adverb is often used


-he smokes 40 cigarettes a day.


-he usually takes the bus to work.


· general, recurrent


-English people drink a lot of tea.


· mathematical, scientific, geographical


-water boils at 100 degrees.


-the river Po flows into the Adriatic Sea.


· permanent actions


-I live in Milan - vs - I’m living in Milan (now-temporary)


) to give instructions / directions


-first you take eggs and then you mix them with…


) in narrative to describe summarised events


· journalism


-“Bush addresses Congress”


· plot summaries � film, book, historical table


-In Chapter 1 Susan meets Greg and…


-178. The French revolution begins.


4) timetable future per orari di partenza/arrivo mezzi di trasporto; inizio/fine spettacoli…


-the train leaves at o’clock.


-he takes the 1st train tomorrow.


5) suggerimenti, inviti alla forma negativa


-WHY DON’T YOU…?


6) WHAT DO YOU DO?͖What’s your job?


7) with “state” verbs


· percezione involontaria hear, see, smell, seem, appear, taste


· volontà want, need, prefer,wish


· sentimento love, like, dislike, hate


· possesso have (got), belong, own, possess


· cost, be, depend, matter, exist, weigh = pesare, contain, include


· believe, know, suppose, think, understand.


N.B. Some of these verbs can be used in continuous forms with a change of meaning


Ø I’m having breakfast. (=eat)


Ø I’m tasting the soup to check if it needs more salt. (=sample)


Ø I’m thinking of buying a new car (=consider)


Present Continuous


FORM ie͖y lie/lying


c͖ck mimic/mimicking


run͖running


USE


1) a temporary action - now -; a continuous action already begun not yet complete


-he’s studying.


) a temporary action begun recently, continuing, but not expected to be permanent


-I’m living in Milan.


) temporary habit not necessarily taking place at the moment


-I’m studying Japanese.


4) a regrettable habit (“ALWAYS”)


-he’s always losing his keys!


5) to describe a photo


6) azione programmata per il futuro (appointment, arranfement already made)


-I’m seeing the doctor tomorrow morning.


-how long are you staying in Rome?


7) formal (letters)


Ø I am LOOKING FORWARD TO + ing da ora in poi, verso il futuro


I have been looking forward to meeting her fine- nn vedevo l’ora…


Ø TO BE HOPING TO + ing


PAST TENSES


Simple past


FORM cooked � worried � slipped � mimicked


USE


1) single finished action with clear time marker


-I played tennis yesterday


-I left my shopping bag on the train (= a definite place suggests a definite time)


- N.B.I was born on 11th August,18.


-


) past habits/states ( a time expression is usually necessary )


-I always got up early in those days.


-I rode a horse when I was young.


-I lived in Paris FOR several years before movin to London---not any longer


N.B. USED TO past habit vs present


-I used to drink tea when I was young but now I prefer coffee./didn’t use- did


you use to?/


WOULD past habit (usually in writing) but not in contrast with the present


-I would always make my mum a cup of tea after lunch.


Present Perfect


1) recent event without a definite time (sottointeso just)


-I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.


N.B.- I bought a new bracelet l’attenzione è sull’ azione


-When/where did you buy it? l’attenzione è sul luogo, tempo in cui l’ azione, ormai


conclusa, è avvenuta.


) event whose result is evident in the present


-I’ve broken my arm, as you can see.


-I’ve washed the car (=now it’s cleaned)


) past action with present relevance


-I’ve studied French (=so I can translate this passage)


-I’ve seen the film (=so I can tell you about it)


-INTERVIEW-RELEVANT EXPERIENCEWhy are you suitable for this job? Because I


have studied/I have worked…


4) action begun in the past incomplete - it still goes on FOR � SINCE


-I have lived in Milan for � since…


5) with ADVERBS of FREQUENCY


· always � often � generally � usually � sometimes � rarely/seldom � hardly ever(-)


never (-) � ever (?)


· still � just � already � yet (-) � almost � recently


-I’ve just finished it.


Ma-I’ve finished it recentlty-yet(-)


-I still have seen her.


6) time span not yet over


· this morning / afternoon / week / century…


-I’ve seen her this morning (she’s probably still here)vs I aw her earlier (she could be


anywhere now)


· so far/up to now (the job hasn’t been too tiring)


· all day


· in my life


· in the last few days / weeks


· in this century


· N.B.It’s the 1st time…


7) I HAVE BEEN to Bath times this week(=sono già tornato)


I HAVE GONE to Bath today. I’m coming back at 6(=sono ancora a B.)


8) with a future meaning following WHEN � AFTER � AS SOON AS � (FUT. ANTER)


-I’ ll come when I have finished.


Present Perfect Continuous �Past Perf Cont-


USE


1) emphasises the length of time of an action. The action is NOT COMPLETED � still goes on � or recently finished.


-I’ve been baking biscuits ALL AFTERNOON.


-(So far) I’ve backed 50 biscuits altogether.(= giving the number of actions suggests


completion)


-I’ve lived in this house FOR 5 years = I’ve been living in this house FOR 5 years.


MA


PRES.PERF.CONT con How long, sit, lie, wait, stay


) explanation of a present situation - no…perchè… -


-I won’t shake hands, I’ve been gardening.


-I’ve been digging the garden. That’s why I’m so dirty!


-Why are you so tired? I haven’t been sleeping very well (=E’ un pò di tempo che…)


) explanation of a period of time just finishing


-I’m sorry I’m late. I’ve been talking to my boss.


-Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for ages.


-They have been promising a new metro line for years but although they have been


talking and talking nothing has been done / they haven’ t done anything.


4)I’ VE BEEN LOOKING FORWARD TO + ING


I’ VE BEEN MEANING/INTENDING TO VISIT for ages but I’m very busy implies


that the action has not been done.











Past Continuous


1) past action in progress (also descriptions); often contrasted with a sudden event in the Simple Past (=contemporary)


-Henry was in his bedroom. He was reading a book.


-When I arrived, Tom was talking on the phone.


-While I was studying, the phone rang.


) un’ azione programmata per il futuro in relazione a un momento passato


-He said he was going to work by car the following day.


) past annoying habit (“ALWAYS”)


-John was always ringing me up!


4) Polite I WAS WONDERING IF you could help me!


I WAS HOPING you might help me find the answer.


Uncertainty I WAS THINKING OF HAVING a party next week.


5) an action in the past that continued over a specified period of time ----//////---now


-I was watching TV all day.


-I was studying between p.m. and 7 p.m..


6) demanding an account of an activity - not permitted -


-What were you doing in my room? I was looking for a book.


7) abandoned idea / proposal


-I was hoping to…


-I was planning to go there but…


Past Perfect


1) past before past


Ø before the time considered -She had gone to bed BEFORE MIDNIGHT.


Ø Before another action always belonging to the past -When she had finished her work, she relaxed.


) with frequency adverbs


) as soon as


it was the first time


if I had studied…


I wish I had known…


THE FUTURE


Will


1) predictions (vs to be going to dove vedi la causa)


-Computer will never replace teachers.


-Don’t worry, it won’t rain tomorrow!


-PROBABLY / PERHAPS it will become dirtier if nothing will be done.


) dopo verbi di opinione, supposizione, certezza, speranza (think, suppose, be sure, hope…)


-I hope you’ll come in time for the performance.


) spontaneous, unplanned decision (decisione presa al momento e non programmata vs to be going to)


-It’s raining! I’ll take my umbrella.


-the phone is ringing. I’ll go and answer!


4) azioni future non dipendenti dalla volontà di nessuno


-I’ll be 18 in July.


-Will there be many people at the lecture?


5) nelle dubitative / interrogative indirette


-I don’t doubt that she’ll pass the exam.


-I don’t know if he’ll come.


6) offerta, promessa, minaccia, richiesta


7) deduction


-Is that the phone? It’ll be (=MUST BE) Andrew.


Timetable Future (pres + time marker)


-The bus leaves at .


Diary Future (pres.cont + time marker)


1) a plan, an appointment already fixed � nel vicino futuro


-I’m going to the doctor tomorrow.


-I’m leaving for France tonight.


) to ask about social arrangements


-Ware you doing anything tonight?


To Be Going To � Future of Intention


1) l’ intenzione di compiere un’ azione


-What are you going to do after your diploma?


-I’m going to fix the TV tomorrow.


) un’ azione imminente che ci si aspetta che avvenga o che sta per avvenire (prediction but we can see the cause of the event)


-It’s cloudy It’s going to rain again!


Future Continuous


1) un’azione in corso nel momento futuro in considerazione


-At this time tomorrow I’ll be travelling to London.


) un’azione futura che rientra nel normale corso degli eventi - as usual…-


- As usual, I’ll be meeting my relatives next Sunday.


Future Perfect





1) un’azione futura che sarà già finita nel momento futuro considerato (BY; BY+PRECISE TIME OR DATE, BY THEN, BY THAT TIME…)


- I’ll have finished by 5 tomorrow.


Future Perfect Continuous


1) to express a predicted duration of a future action


-At this time tomorrow I’ll have been travelling FOR 4 hours.


FUTURO nelle SUBORDINATE


IF, UNLESS, WHEN, AS SOON AS, AS LONG AS, TILL


1) FUTURO SEMPLICE + Pres


- I won’t be there when you come back.


) FUTURO ANTERIORE +Pres.Perfect


- As soon as you have finished, we’ll go out.


FUTURE in the PAST = CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE





-he said that he would never marry Jane.


-the sky was blue, the sea was calm. It would certainly be a pleasant crossing.


CONDITIONALS


1) 0 Conditional always true; if = when(ever)


-If I drink coffee in the evening, I don’t sleep.


-When there was snow, we went skiing.


REMEMBER If she’s still having a shower/If she’s still here/If she hasn’ t finished, she won’t go away.


) 1st Conditionals realistic / logical possibility


- If I study, I’ll / can do well my exam.


-If it rains, we’ll take an umbrella.


) nd Conditional hypothetical (dreams, advice)


- If I were you, I’d tell her the truth.


-If he asked me nicely, I might/could give it to him. = vague possibility


4) rd Conditional unreal/hypothetical past situation regret


- If my brother had studied more, he would/might have become famous.


-If only I had studied more I’d have done better (=regret)


THE PASSIVE


FORM the appropriate form of the verb “to be”+ past participle del verbo transitivo - ma non di I like-love pizza �


TEMPO FORMA ATTIVA FORMA PASSIVA


Simple present makes is made


Present continuous is making is being made


Simple past made was made


Past continuous was making was being made


Present perfect has made has been made


Past perfect had made had been made


Simple future will make will be made


Future perfect will have made will have been made


Going-to form is going to make is going to be made


Present conditional would make would be made


Perfect conditional would have made would have been made


Present infinitive to make to be made


Perfect infinitive to have made to have been made


Present participle-gerund making being made


Perfect participle having made having been made


USE


1) when the action is more important than the agent. The agent is actually


-unknown my bike has been stolen.


-obvious Mr Jones was arrested.


) processes, routines (series of actions)


-How is wine made? The grapes are gathered in the fields…


-How does the Royal Mail work? First a letter is written…


) divieti, istruzioni


-smocking is not allowed here.


-students are asked not to smoke.


4) reporting � current events/crime/historical events


-the presidential election in the USA has been won by Bush.


NOTA BENE


1) in colloquial English “to be” is often replaced by “to get”


-My car got broken into again yesterday.


) make (=to force) and ask require “to”


-They made David work hard---David was made to work hard.


) “let” becomes “allow”





4) HAVE STH DONE


Ø per servizi resi da terzi I had new tiles put on the roof.


Ø Misfortunes happened to us caused by an unspecified person Peter had his car stolen last year.


5) NEEDS DOING per indicare una persona o cosa che necessita di un servizio


-The floor is dirty. It needs scrubbing.


6) passivo dei verbi con doppio accusativo to bring, to give, to lend, to offer, to promise, to send, to tell


- the director will offer him the role of Othello.


He will be offered the role of Othello.


- They didn’t tell Laura the truth.


Laura wasn’t told the truth.


7) il si passivante, per evitare THEY / PEOPLE, con verbi quail SAY, BELIEVE, UNDERSTAND. (=nell’ attivo con lo stesso tempo tra princ. e subord.)


-People say he is in debt.


It is said to be in debt.




















WISHES / REGRETS


-I want / would like / would have liked to go


I want /would like you to go


-I prefer to go to the cinema than watch/instead of watching /to watching TV.


I prefer you to go


…Altri modi per rendere il condizionale - pres e pass � di prefer


· I’d rather (not) go --------- I’d rather have gone


· I’d rather you went-------- I’d rather you had gone


· I’d sooner you went-------- I’d sooner you had gone


-You’d better (not)go=should=faresti meglio a


-It’s (high) time you went.


-If only I hadn’t broken it.= regret


-Suppose / Imagine you were rich, what would you do?


-Desideri realizzabili I hope to see you/I hope you won’t be late


VS


WISH


PRESENTE


· I wish I had a new car-I wish I were rich.


· I wish it wasn’t snowing.


N.B. ANNOYING HABIT or A SPECIFIC ACTION YOU WOULD LIKE TO HAPPEN


· I wish you wouldn’t chew gum all the time.


· I wish the police would do sth about these people.


FUTURO


· I wish I could do that tomorrow.


· I wish I didn’t have to get up early tomorrow.


PASSATO


· I wish I had listened to her-I wish it hadn’t been snowing on my wedding day.


N.B. ANNOYING HABIT or A SPECIFIC ACTION YOU WOULD HAVE LIKED TO HAPPEN


· I wish you wouldn’t have talked all the time.


Verbi che reggono �ing


Con preposizione


to apologise for scusarsi per


to be afraid of aver paura di


to be keen on essere appassionato di


to be used to essere abituato a


to get used to abituarsi a


to be tired of essere stanco di


to feel like essere disposto a-aver voglia di


to give up smettere di


to insist on insistere di


to think of pensare di


to thank s.o. for ringraziare qlc per


to burst out scoppiare a


to avoid Evitare di


to admit he admits being wrong he admits that he’s wrong Ammettere di


to be busy essere occupato a


to deny negare di


to consider considerare di


to practise esercitarsi a


to enjoy divertirsi a


to miss avere la mancanza di


to imagine immaginare di


to keep (on) continuare a


to help aiutare a


to mind dispiacere/avere qlc in contrario


to resist resistere a


to risk rischiare a


to suggest he suggested going he suggested that we went suggerire di


Espressioni come…


can’t waste time non poter sprecare tempo a


can’t bear/stand non sopportare


can’t help (MAcan’t do without sth) non potere fare a meno di


it’s no use-no good è inutile-non serve


it’s ( is not ) worth (non) valere la pena


N.B. Se il soggetto è diverso dalla principale͖V + AGG.POSS o GENITIVO o COMPL PERS + ing


-I can’t stand his/Paul’s/him snoring.


VERB +ING +TO


hate � like � dislike � love - prefer azione abituale-I love cooking. azione occasionale-What would you like to go?


forget � remember past event-I don’t remember learning walk future event-obligation-Remember to do it!


try suggestion-Try taking an aspirine,you’ll be better. try and fail-I tried to warn him (but…)


go on continue-she went on working even though it was late. aggiungere col dire


mean comportare,significare-leaving tomorrow will mean getting up early. avere l’ intenzione-I meant to phone you but i forgot.


stop give up-I stopped smoking. smettere per fare qualcos’altro-I stopped to buy some coffee.


to be sorry (for se �ing)/ regret azione passata-I regret not phoning you but I was late about what’s going to be said-I regret to tell you that you have failed


Verbi con infinito + to


can’t afford non potersi permettere


agree


appear apparire


arrange


ask chiedere di


choose scegliere di


decide decidere di


fail


hope


prepare prepararsi a


promise promettere di


manage


seem sembrare


refuse rifiutare di


wait aspettare di


threaten minacciare di


Prepositional Phrases


vote for votare per


ask for sth chiedere per avere qlc


blame s.o. for incolpare qlc di


warn s.o. of sth avvisare qlc di qlc


remind s.o. to do sth ricordare a qlc di fare qlc


insist on insistere a


rely on contare su


apologise to s.o. for sth scusarsi con qlc di qlc


good at bravo in


It is good/kind of you to do sth è gentile da parte tua fare qlc


Participles


1) as adjectives


-I’m a boring person----the stolen wallet (=passive meaning)


) participles clause dopo AFTER e BECOUSE; per sostituire clauses con when e le relative


-Driving home i listened to…


-Having arrived home late,he went out for supper pres.perf.participle -se 1 azione è finita prima


di un’altra.











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