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Monday, October 22, 2012

Excessive Beauty

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The majority of women today take enhancing their physical appearance to the extreme. They go out and get all types of additional items added to their body only to receive attention. It would not matter if they were the best looking, they would still have the urge to make improvements. Women add these extra items to their bodies because they may have low self esteem and are dissatisfied, but I think they should be thankful for what they naturally have.

Some women feel they need to spend a lot of time and effort on their appearance. They want to fit in and be what society feels a woman should be. Some women also feel that they have to look their very best in order to impress. In my opinion, the reason they are dissatisfied with their natural appearance is because of low self-esteem. They look at themselves in a negative way and feel they should change everything about them. Every time they look at themselves in the mirror they may see a horrible image looking back at them. If they are watching televison and see some gorgeous celebrity they might feel they want to look like them.

In many cases, women go out to purchase products for their face instead of appreciating natural beauty. I find it okay to add slight facial powder and lip gloss, but, some go to the extreme when putting on make-up. They put on lots of liquid make-up, mascara, lipstick that doesn’t fit them and look fake like a Barbie doll. They even go to the hair salon to add extensions or artificial nails just to impress others. They look at female celebrities that spend so much money on fixing their body with different enhancements. They don’t think of the disadvantages when getting these critical procedures done.

When they get these procedures done, they may get the attention they wanted but, it will only last for a short time. There even some serious complications can occur during these procedures. During the procedure, the surgeon could be in a terrible mood and mess the job up. It can be a problem that can affect the rest of their lives. The side effects of having these surgeries are also needed to take into consideration. Many women that had nose jobs or their breasts enhanced have suffered from the pain and still are dissatisfied.

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In conclusion, no matter how much most women try to enhance their physical appearance it still will not solve the negativity on the inside. Women that take their grooming practices to the extreme because they may have low self esteem and are dissatisfied with their natural appearance. They spend thousands of dollars on different products and surgeries and still are not happy. Women with low self esteem do not realize that materialistic things will not make them happy on the inside. They should be satisfied with what God has blessed them with and try not to take the grooming to the extreme.



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Comparison

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Cousin Kate is a pity-full and sympathetic poem.

Cousin Kate makes me feel sorry for the main character because of the language she uses like Now I moan, an unclean thing, who might have been a dove .

The Poem “The Seduction” is a sympathetic poem, but you feel that the girl is a bit stupid.

The poem The Seduction makes me want to tell the girl how silly she was to do what she did when she was drunk and not to realise how untrue the boy’s intentions were. It is hinted at that the two only met on the night of the party because there is no name given, no history given and the girl would have been shown where the boy went when he skipped school before that.

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What happened that night led to her becoming pregnant By stupid , stupid promises only tacitly made She feels more hurt as the young girl doesnt love the boy and thinks that there is no possible chance that the two would do this together . She is also afraid about what others would think of her. When she throws her high white shoes at the wall, it really shows that she is very regretful of the night, as the shoes were part of the night and she wants nothing to remind her of it, and the shoes were considered to be worn by girls that would do anything just to sleep with a man. Also the final stanza of the poem describes what the young girl is feeling. It implies that the girl does not want this child at all Better to starve yourself, like a sick precocious child





Another way that the poems share similarities and have differences is how each of males in the poems felt about each of the girls and what the local people thought of them. The Lord in Cousin Kate did not have true feelings for her and used her. The narrator was a cottage maiden and she was unaware of how pretty she was and hadnt experienced love before He wore me like a silken glove . When the Lord showed her feelings she fell for him because of the things she said and did. Also the lord found it easy to get the narrator because of her situation fill my heart with care. When he had finished using her he went on to her “Cousin Kate” but treated her differently, and as far as we know treats her with care and respect, but in the end, the girl feels almost as if its all worth it, because she has a beautiful young baby boy and the lord and “Cousin Kate” have been together for ages now, and there is no sign of Kate becoming pregnant.



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Can you find jelly?

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In this essay I am going to investigate and explore the differences and similarities between the characters Tybalt and Mercutio in the famous love story Romeo and Juliet. Then I will analyse the factors that lead up to their deaths.

Tybalt is Juliet’s cousin. He is a far cry from Romeo’s cousin, Benvolio. He is a fiery young man and a troublemaker. He loves fighting for his own sake. “peace? I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montague’s and thee” Tybalt is almost a caricature of feuding violence. He is the kind of person who keeps the feud alive, he represents feud in living form throughout the play.

Mercutio stands apart from the antagonism between the Capulet’s and Montague’s, being a member of neither family. Mercutio is young, rich and intelligent. His defence of Romeo’s honour, despite the fact that he himself is not involved in the feud, gains our admiration.

Both men are easily provoked and easily annoyed. They are always prepared to fight when their honour need to be defended. “Pluck your sword” says Mercutio. “I’ll not endure him” says Tybalt. This shows how stubborn both characters are.

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They both feel they are always right which causes more conflict and shows more stubbornness. Both men have hatred for one another. This is shown as Mercutio cries to Tybalt “vile submission”

There are only few similarities between the two characters, however because of this, they die.

There are many differences between Mercutio and Tybalt. Mercutio is a fun character with a witty personality, neither Montague nor Capulet. He is extremely imaginative and creative, when describing Queen Mab and his friends he says “Her traces are of the smallest spider’s web” His role in life is to enjoy it, carefree and in a fearless manor. He is absent-minded, confident, bold, gallant, intrepid and valorous. In the end he has a winning personality, as when he is dying he makes a joke “Ay, a scratch, go villain, fetch a surgeon” He says “scratch” because he calls Tybalt a “rat catcher” This shows how he plays on his words.

Tybalt on the other hand is very aggressive, full of rage, anger and has a very short temper. When Romeo arrives at the party Tybalt says “Tis he, that villain Romeo” The word “villain” means wicked, showing just how far his hatred goes with Romeo. Tybalt is full of passion honour and love for his own family, the Capulets. He has no remorse shown when he is arguing with Benvolio “look upon thy death” he hated him so much he’d rather him dead. He hates peace and love “what I hate the word”. He hated all Montague’s “As I hate all the Montague’s” this shows how he is vengeful and again shows hatred. He is bitter, spiteful and has an impetuous, resentful, vengeful untamed personality.

It is because of all these reasons that both Mercutio and Tybalt are killed. Mercutio is killed due to his stubbornness, he will not back down from a fight, and he must defend his honour. Romeo would not defend himself against Tybalt, so Mercutio felt he must intervene, and protects Romeo, but is killed by Tybalt. He dies because his love for Romeo is so strong.

Due to the fact that he killed Mercutio, Romeo cannot bare to see Tybalt alive, his guilt is so strong. Tybalt’s death is due to his complete hatred for all Montague’s and because his pride and honour is so strong.

Additionally, if Tybalt had not provoked Romeo then both Mercutio and Tybalt may still be alive. However, both men die due to hatred, bitterness, anger and remorse.



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Advantages of Dying Young

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A.E. Housman’s poem, “To an Athlete Dying Young,” reflects the life of a young athlete’s victory not only in a small town race, but also a victory in his death. Housman uses short and choppy words to express his ideas. The simplicity of this poem is the best quality the poem possesses. A good example of the poem’s simplicity is the fact that barely any words contain more than two syllables. The reader must carefully analyze the poem in order to realize the poem’s true meaning. Even though Housman uses choppy words in his poetry, he is really trying to explain his poetry more elaborately. Housman’s writing style is extremely effective in this poem because the athlete lived a short life, yet, he lived his life elaborately.

The first stanza describes the athlete’s victory in a town race where “man and boy stood cheering by” for the special occasion. In the second stanza, however, the athlete has come to “the road all runners come,” referring to his death. The parallel between the first two stanzas is very close and most readers seem to miss the paradox between the athlete being carried shoulder-high after the race, and the athlete being carried shoulder-high after his death. Also by the end of the first two stanzas, the reader starts to wander who is actually speaking throughout the poem. Through much deliberation, I have come to the conclusion that the persona is a friend of the athlete who is also helping carry the athlete’s casket.





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The third and fourth stanzas refer to the deceased athlete as a “smart lad” to have died before his records were broken. The speaker describes an athlete’s life as “fields where glory does not stay,” meaning that someone will always come along who is faster or smarter than the person before them. Housman uses the laurel to symbolize the athlete’s victory in the race, but he also uses the rose to symbolize how fast his glory will die. The athlete, being in his youth, is probably naive and does not realize that his records will eventually be broken, but the speaker knows the athlete’s record will be broken and is glad the athlete will not be alive to witness the fall of his own glory.

The fifth stanza describes the typical athlete who is usually forgotten before he or she dies and how hard it would be to go from a well-known athlete to a nobody. The speaker again praises the athlete for quitting at the height of his career. Michael Jordan, for example, is a famous basketball player who retired at the apex of his career, and even though he returned to the game, he had already carved his name in the hearts and minds of people around the world. Since Housman wrote this poem during World War I, another example could be the soldier who is thought of as a hero by his fellow people for his bravery, but most soldiers who survive the war are not recognized nearly as much as the soldiers who die during the war. The speaker emphasizes the advantages of dying young so much that is seems as if he is trying to convince the reader to die in his or her prime so that he or she too, can preserve his or her truth and beauty.





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In the sixth and seventh stanzas, the speaker declares the memory of the athlete preserved in the town forever. The town will not only remember the athlete because of his victory in the

race, but also because of his death. A tragic incident such as a young man’s death is not easily forgotten in a small town, especially since he has already made a name for himself as runner.The athlete does not only win the race; he also wins the sympathy and sorrow of the townspeople by dying.

Housman’s simple diction in this poem causes the reader to search beyond the actual words for the meaning. Housman’s simplistic style also allows more varied types of people to read his literary works, and more important, understand his works. During his time period at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly when the lower and middle classes began to move to the city in masses and were exposed to a variety of literature never before available on their comprehension level. Housman’s theme of death in his poetry was appropriate for his day due to World War I and has been just as appropriate for every generation after him because of the continuous wars throughout the world. His open curiosity of death has caused many to acknowledge him as a precursor to modern poetry.

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Wallmart : Strategic Management Analysis

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WAL-MART CASE STUDY

Strategic Management

December 00

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Introduction

Before analyzing the key success factors of Wal-Mart, I am going to present this company in few words. Wal-Mart is a discount retailor created in 16 by Sam Walton. The first store opened July nd of this year in Rogers, Arkansas, USA.

During the 10 first years Wal-Mart opened stores and during the following 10 years, it opened 44 new selling points while the United States knew the two petroleum crisis.

As show the following graphics, its sales increased 67.000 times between 16 and 14 and its profits 0.000 times.





As we can see better with these graphics, how incredible is the increase of the Wal-Mart’s profits, a real American success story... This one is now the case of many business schools to understand the key success factors which had led this company to be the world’s largest discount retailor. This is the purpose of this paper.

Founder Sam Walton’s inspiracional leadership

Like every entreprise, somebody is at the origin and usually this person, its personality, its character, is the main factor of success or failure. As Wal-Mart were growing, Sam Walton porved an effective and visionnary leadership which are the two main qualities to guarantee the success of a new company. Thus, Sam Walton has known how to combine these two qualities to put in place in its strategy values and beleifs as innovation, social responsability, employees’ participation, costs cut, technology awarness which led its company to a rapid expansion.

An associate-focused organisational structure

Sam Walton understood from the begining that without a strong participation of its employees, Wal-Mart would meet difficulties in its expansion. Thus, he considered them as the first partners of the company so that they would strive to excel and then participate in the rewards. This increases more the standing of Sam Wlaton when we know that culturaly, the United States is a very individualist society where entrepreneurs are usually looking for profits before its employees well being.

A strong customer service orientation

As we can read in this case, Wal-Mart has a strong approach oriented to customers’ satisfaction. From the welcoming of the customers to the arrangements in the stores everything is done to make their visit pleasant. A precise point attracted my attention is that one of the five themes stressed in training store personel is Sell the customer what they want to buy. This is very symptomatic of the approach has Sam Walton for business, long-term benefits. In this example the satisfaction of the ckient will make him comeback in the store.

A low-cost strategy

The low-cost strategy is one of the main factors of Wal-Mart’s success. It permits to make benefit to the customers to the lowest prices of the market which is in this sector a real competitive advantage. This strategy is feasable thanks to another key factor of success of wal-Mart, a very efficient logitics system where the search of economy is the present in each step of the distribution chanels.

A strong capacity for innovation

This an essential factor of success and demonstrates well the visionnaire’s quality of Sam Walton who was laways aware of the technologies evolution. As an example we could mention that in 174, Wal-Mart begun tu use computers to control its inventories. We can also see in the case that Sam walton was a pionneer in the telecommunication sector buying the largest private satellite telecommunication network. In this example technology is used in a very effeciency way because it was used to reinforce the internal communication which is also a factor of the success of the company. Indeed, in a company composed by more than 000 stores, internal communication is key point in its success.

An innovative merchandising

The goal of the company concerning its merchandising strategy is to maximize inventory turnover. To reach this objective, Wal-Mart was veru active experimenting, testing new merchandising techniques which led the company to the excellence in this sector and was one the main factor of the unbeleivable increase of the sales.

Conclusion

The success of Wal-Mart is not the result of luck or because it was a pionneer in a sector, it is the combinaison of these key factors. The competitive advantage of the company was obviously its founder’s capacity to innovate, to manage all the aspects of the business. He maximized both human and financial resources to make porfits. What is for me essential in its strategy is that he makes participate all the people who work with him in the results of its company taking into account the human dimension of the business. I think this is not an obsolete way of thinking the business at all considering that first, it is the people who guarantee the success of a business.



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Stress Management

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There is a strong tendency to resist the idea that we might need help. It may surprise you

to know that many more people seek help than you might think. In fact, it is likely that within

your circle of friends or colleagues, at least one person (and probably more) have gone for some

form of counseling or support. People just dont talk about it much. This leaves the impression

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that counseling is for ?weak? people, or somehow means that people who seek it out are

?abnormal? in some way. It is the opposite. People who ask for help when they need it show a

maturity and awareness of themselves that others may not. Those who choose to suffer in silence

pay a price that may not be necessary. It is important to realize that if you go for counseling, it

doesnt mean that you are crazy, or abnormal. It just means that you recognize that life is crazy

enough to cause problems for the best of us.

People seek help for a number of problems. We can consider three types addictions,

personal problems, and workplace problems. Addictions to substances such as alcohol or drugs

(including prescription drugs) can be lethal. Substance dependencies can destroy careers and families and need to be addressed. Personal problems can include family difficulties such as a shaky marriage, trouble with teenagers, or the loss of a loved one. Sometimes, anxiety and depression may stem from events that occurred some time ago (e.g.. abuse). These kinds of problems can also be devastating, and cause a vicious circle. If they are not dealt with, they may increase distress. Workplace problems relate to the stress of work, difficult interpersonal relationships with colleagues, or with the boss, or the effects of drastic change in our jobs. Regardless of the types of issues you may be dealing with, counseling helps you cope more effectively with the problem. Counseling cant remove all the stresses, or fix everything but it can help you be better able to cope with what is happening.

Most governments have Educational Assistance Programs available to employees. These

programs will provide counseling or refer you to other resources that may be more appropriate. If you have a sympathetic family doctor, that may be a good place to start. There are also services offered by psychologists, psychiatrists and other agencies in the community if you prefer to go that route. Costs vary, depending on whether fees are covered by medical insurance plans (psychiatrists or other medical doctors are usually covered). It is important to realize that counselors are only human...there are good ones and bad ones. You need to find someone that you can trust, and that fits your own style.

Far more people than you would think take advantage of counseling to help them through rough periods. It is important to be alert to the possibility that your burden can be best carried by sharing the load with someone else, and sometimes friends, or family are not enough. There is help available, and seeking it out indicates that you are mature enough to recognize that you need it.



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rise and decline of irish company

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CONTENTS

1. Introduction

. The Rise

. The Decline 4

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4. Environmental Factors 5

4.1. Economical

4.. Technological

4.. Microenvironment

5. Marketing and Management Strategies

5.1. Retrenchment

6. Conclusion 11

7. Appendices 1

7.1. Sources

7.. History of Baltimore 1-00



1.0 Introduction

Baltimore Technologies develops and markets security products and services for a wide range of e-commerce and enterprise applications. Its products include Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) systems, cryptographic toolkits, security applications and hardware cryptograph devices.

Baltimore Technologies have won numerous awards including “Best security product” and “Product of the year”. Also, previous CEO Fran Rooney was named Business Person of the Year. This was due to the recognition of his contribution to the meteoric growth of Baltimore Technologies to become a global leader in e-commerce and enterprise solutions. However, in just over a year (000-001) Baltimore Technologies has gone from being one of the largest technology companies in Europe with a valuation of circa £1 billion, to apparently fighting for survival under new, interim leadership

.0 The Rise

Dermot Desmond and Fran Rooney, both significant businesspeople, put financial backing into the fledging company in 16 and the company swiftly created a name for itself through creative promotion via leading industrial events such as the RSA Data Security Conferences. The company floated in 1 and made millions for the investors.

Quickly Baltimore tackled industry giants such as RSA, CertCo, Entrust and Verisign- despite the fact that these companies had been around for years and had well established brand value and identity. Baltimore clinched high profile deals and started acquiring companies, including a reverse takeover of British competitor Zergo.

In February 000 the company was worth £1.5bn on the London Stock exchange. This market value was significantly more than the company book value as investors had high expectations for growth in the company, supplementary to the fact that it was widely expected that Baltimore’s core business, PKI, would be the answer to the worlds e-security problems.

.0 The Decline

In the dying months of that same year, however, the economy began to crumble and the technology bubble burst along with the fortunes of Baltimore. Profit warnings in early 001 also augmented a reaction from investors. As investors began to realise that the promised profits from buyers (1st Phase internet players) were not materialising due to reluctance on the part of the IT buyers to commit to new purchases as a result of the economic uncertainty, they sold their shares. This created a snowball effect on the share price and since the company relied heavily on share investor input, which they had re-invested heavily into future projects, Baltimore finances were hurt

Analysts John Cooligan of Merrion Stockbrokers and Barry Dixon of Davy Stockbrokers agree that Baltimore may have suffered due to a shift in customer perception of the company’s security products. They felt that customers started to see the products as value added items rather than essentials and some doubted the future of PKI technology (see below).

Advisors such as Gartner, suggested that this might be due to companies embedding PKI into their applications without the help of pure-play PKI vendors such as Baltimore.

4.0 Environmental Forces

To reach the highest levels of success, a firm must be able to adapt to the changes in internal (The company, competitors, collaborators, and customers) and external environmental forces (political, economical, social and technological). While an organisation is not able to control the external forces, it is vital be aware of the changing surroundings.

Baltimore is an example of how external environmental factors can influence the fortunes of a company particularly in the Economic and Technological sectors.

4.1 Economical Forces

As can be seen from above, the economic slow down of the environment particularly in the US significantly affected buyers, which was the spark in the Baltimore decline.

The slowdown started in 000 as a result of appropriate tightening of monetary policy in the US to address rising demand pressures, and by mid-001 had become a synchronized downturn (IMF 001) across almost all major regions of the world. To an extent this was the result of common shocks, including an increase in oil prices and the bursting of the IT bubble. (The dotcom bubble had become overinflated due to ‘irrational exuberance’, with too much money chasing too few good ideas).

Equity markets fell sharply, most notably the technology intensive NASDAQ index, which fell by about 70 percent between early March (when it had soared to over 5,000 at the height of dotcom madness) and early April 001. And while macro-economists have not achieved consensus on what exactly causes a recession, probably because the causes are psychological, it is clear that a recession is generally related to a decline in confidence that makes consumers/businesses want to postpone or cancel spending (Shiller, 001). This weakening of confidence was, particularly in the IT sector, had been evident from mid-000, and economic theory dictates that you downsize rapidly once you enter a recession in order to avoid excess capacity. Did Baltimore not see the wave, or did it simply believe it could ride it while all others drowned?

Economic downturn affected all companies in the IT sector, not just Baltimore. However in addition to the ecomonic downturn, overstaffing contributed significantly to the company’s misfortune. Baltimore had made four major acquisitions in 000 (total employee headcount in May 001 was 1,400 versus 400 in January 000 and 700 in July 000!). The company’s run-rate on its revenues was more in line with a company of around 400 employees. This left Baltimore massively exposed in terms of its operating costs and cash burn.

4. Technological Forces

From a technological force perspective, Baltimore might have been guilty of ‘rushing into’ an industry that had dubious market potential. They took a risk at investing in developing and acquiring Internet security products that had large forecasted market demand but little current revenues. Further one might say that they might have put ‘all their eggs in one basket’ by investing in future projects before profits had been made on their maiden flagship PKI and despite being in the red in the FTSE 100. Fran Rooney, CEO, advising investors that “We were profitable 18 months ago and our decision was to invest in the company”.

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In this way it can be said that they had ‘Technological Myopia’ or perhaps they placed too much confidence in a positive long-term view of the IT market. There might have been a rush on the part of the management to push the company onto the global stage before the foundations were finished being laid. Fran Rooney would later say, “We could have been a strong European player and profitable, but we decided to become a global player”.

They wanted to impress the world early through aggressive marketing and brand-building strategies and they wanted vastly to appear bigger than they were- as global companies like Oracle Corp. had done before (E.g. at one particular industry event, Baltimore brought all their staff along to give on-lookers the impression that they were a large company and they wanted vastly to appear bigger than they were. Also each member of staff used their duty-free allowance to purchase drinks for potential customers). While this all had an effective outcome initially, Baltimore possibly did not foresee that companies would, in the near future, be able to by-pass the ‘pure-play PKI vendors’ (i.e. Baltimore) and purchase their own PKI (in the same way that companies do not build their own electricity grids but use the national network). Baltimore reacted to this problem by quickly trying to diversify into other technology areas through acquisition leading to the decline.

Further they may not have guessed that buyers might not trust their product. Reports that ’digital certificates’ � a key element of the PKI system � which were supposed to be under high protection, had been leaked to impostors pretending to be from major companies did not help matters (Not the fault of Baltimore- this happened to one of Baltimores competitors- Verisign). This was unfortunate, as all of Baltimore’s products were certified by the international community as secure and trustworthy according to the most stringent government standards.

The affect on Customer behaviour

Baltimore Technologies developed and marketed security products and services to enable companies to develop trusted, secure systems for e-business, the Internet and mobile commerce. As already stated, Baltimore specialised in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) products and services. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a system of digital certification and key pair encryption that delivers strongest capabilities for services such as authentication, data confidentiality and integrity, and non-repudiation to effectively mitigate various risks involved in a digital environment. As a technology, PKI is based on the best cryptographic techniques. The PKI model advocates a systematic approach to information security by building a cohesive infrastructure and describing how people, processes, technologies, and structure will interact to conduct secure business transactions. The PKI infrastructure was held in such high regard as future applications could be added without modifying the basic structure, suggesting good prospects for return on investment in the long-term. When released originally PKI was touted as the solution to all internet security issues. This did not last for long.

Customers began asking the question “do we even need a PKI for e-commerce?” When Baltimore Technologies was at its peak if anyone opened any article on PKI in the popular or technical press they were likely to find the statement that a PKI system is desperately needed for e-commerce to flourish. This statement was seen by customers to be increasingly false. It was realised that some web sites were still happy to take their order whether they had a certificate or not. Although PKI providers were trying to convince investors that it was essential to e-commerce it was in fact the opposite that was true commercial PKI desperately needed e-commerce to flourish.

Customers also began to doubt the future of PKI as some serious flaws were uncovered. Exactly how secure PKI was came under the spotlight. It was realised that viruses and other malicious programs could attack a computer and get the access to the key stored on that particular machine. Even if it is stored in a truly attack-resistant device, it is not possible to guarantee that the trustworthy device will not sign for something that it didn’t intend on signing for.

As mentioned above PKI is heavily based on cryptographic techniques. In the cryptographic literature words and phrases such as “trusted” and “non-repudiation” were used in specific technical cases, however PKI vendors such as Baltimore Technologies latched onto these terms and used them in a broader sense to heighten the profile of PKI.

Baltimore’s competitors at the time were also getting the upper hand as they capitalised on opportunities in the market that Baltimore had failed to see. Entrust Technologies, RSA Security and DNSSec all offered services that Baltimore Technologies could not compete with due to its misinterpretation of future developments in the market. DNSSec offered a cheap alternative to internet security. They based their product on the Domain Name System. The Domain Name System, or DNS, is one of the Internets fundamental building blocks. DNSSec has been a work in progress for the last 10 years however when they released it they did not try and make it out to be any better than it was. DNSSec analysts admitted that it had faults but that as a starting point in internet security it was a solid product. This type of honesty appealed to consumers who had been disillusioned by PKI vendors such as Baltimore Technologies who had claimed their product almost indestructible.

4. Micro Environment

As can be noted from above, Baltimore seemed to react badly to changes in the microenvironment forces, particularly with regard to competitors. Fran Rooney assured investors after the first profit warning that “our competitors will suffer more than we will, since they’re very dependent on the US for their business”. Later, Baltimore lost retrenchment battles with its competitors. A technology analyst said Baltimore’s heavy fall in late 001 was due to “more aggressive” restructuring moves by US rival Entrust technologies Inc. However Baltimore did make significant cutbacks as described below.

5.0 Marketing and Management Strategies

Some of the above factors that influenced the decline of the company may not have been helped, yet it seems there are others that might have been. In any case the company may have found use in a modern ‘environmental scanning systems’ to help warn of any potential threats. An Environmental scanning system is one, which monitors and analyses a company’s marketing environment. As it is impossible to scan everything it is an important management decision to decide what to scan. It is also essential that the system provide a fast response to events that are only partially predictable due to increasing turbulence in the marketing environment. The idea of the system is to provide the essential informational input to create strategic fit between strategy, organisation and environment. It was discovered after a conversation with Mr. Peter Doyle, Vice-President of Marketing in Baltimore, that they did not have such a system in place. Whether it would have prevented the decline is uncertain.

Retrospective strategies may have consisted of either repositioning or retrenchment. In the end, the company decided to aim market and management strategies toward retrenchment.

5.1 Retrenchment

In an attempt to survive cutbacks by in the technology industry in 001, Baltimore announced that it was to halve its workforce, sell non-essential business and delist from the Nasdaq. Baltimore’s retrenchment after rapid decline in 001 comes in a time of cutbacks by technology companies both in Ireland and on a global scale. The company was forced to cut jobs to protect dwindling cash reserves. Redundancies had to be introduced by striking a balance between cutting costs while maintaining its marketing quota to maintain sales. Ultimately, by December in 001, the workforce had been reduced from 1,400 to just 470. By the second quarter in 001, costs of £14 million had been taken out of the company. In addition, Baltimore suffered major share sales by key players. Dermot Desmond was out of the loop quite early, while Fran Rooney, and the chairman, Professor Beker, were also unloading substantial amounts of stock. Baltimore’s already low share price plummeted when chief executive Fran Rooney let slip to analysts in Dublin in March 001 that the company would fail to meet sales forecasts. The shares, which at their peak touched £15, instantly lost a third of their value.

Initially investors reacted positively to the restructuring plan. Baltimore shares rose by 14 percent in London, while on the Nasdaq market, its American depository receipts increased from 5 cents to 6 cents. With its new retrenchment policies, Baltimore hoped to save $101. million per year. It was estimated that the company was spending $88 in sales and marketing for every $100 it eared, and as a result its expensive network of international sales offices was sharply reduced. Baltimore raised money by selling Content Technologies, which it had acquired in 00 for $700 million. The sale of Baltimores PKI in October 00- public key infrastructure - business for £5m transformed the former FTSE 100 component into a shell company. PKI was the technology on which Baltimore’s success was based.

Fran Rooney, the chief executive officer said different management skills were required during the retrenchment process, but insisted that he would not resign. However, in 00, Bijan Khezri, the new Chief Executive Officer, and Fran Rooneys successor commented

We have successfully revitalised and strengthened our core business, reinvigorated our employee base, invested in promising new product categories reinforced partnerships and laid the foundation for an increasingly productive operational

infrastructure. We continue to win some of the industrys most significant and high profile transactions worldwide. Today, our challenge is to grow revenues rather than to drive profitability through cost reduction. The overall market environment remains

uncertain, difficult to predict and slow-moving causing a lengthening of the sales cycle.



6.0 Conclusion

Baltimore Technolgies Ltd is an unfortunate example of how temperate marketing environments can be detrimental to a company’s fortune. The resulting forces, particularly economical and technological, would hurt the company finances and compel them into re-thinking their marketing and business strategies. Baltimore was such a success in its early years that it was an inspiration to all. The company’s aggressive, innovative, creative and courageous styles deserve admiration and respect. Ultimately Baltimore could not make enough money from PKI and decided to make heavy acquisitions in future technology with finance that they didn’t really have. They may have been over-eager in the beginning, where patience may have been a better element to their strategy or perhaps better planning may have resulted in the important environmental alarm systems being put in place. Were they merely unlucky enough to enter into an unmapped world- like the early explorers- paving the way for others to come? One thing for definate is that the company has developed world class systems and software, which businesses and governments still regard as being amongst the best available, perhaps they were just a little ahead of their time?



7.0 Appendices

7.1 Sources



1. Foundations of Marketing, David Jobber and John Fahy

. Management Information Systems, rd Edition, Gerald V. Post, David L. Anderson.

. Mr. Peter Doyle, President Marketing Department, Baltimore Technologies Ltd.

4. news.bbc.co.uk

5. The Irish Times/ Ireland.com

6. The Mystery of Economic Recessions, Robert J. Shiller

7. The New York Times/OP-ED, Sunday, February 4, 001

8. www.baltimore.com

. www.bankrupt.com

10. www.cs.wisc.edu

11. www.examiner.ie

1. www.guardian.co.uk

1. www.news.bbc.co.uk

14. www.why4u.com

7. History of Baltimore (BT) 18-00

18

· BT named ISA company if the year

· BT wins prestigious IT awards.

· Bank of Ireland chooses BT for internet banking

· BT wins large Business National Innovation Award

· BT enters US market with opening of US offices

· BT expands presence in Switzerland

· BT opens office in Netherlands

· BT expands operations into Japan.

· Irish postal authority chooses BT uniCERT.

1

· BT receives Gold award in Independent Evaluation of PKI systems

· BT, Entrust, IBM, Microsoft and RSA Security announce formation of PKI forum

· BT opens Southern European Head Quarters in Paris

· BT opens office in Hong Kong

· BT enters the wireless eSecurity market with new WAP security product.

· BT chosen by Ulster Bank to secure Anytime Internet Banking

· Opening of Spanish office

· BT at forefront of VPN and PKI interoperability.

000

· BT wins awards for Excellence in Wireless eSecurity.

· BT strengthens eSecurity leadership with acquisition of content technologies, the market leader in content security.

001

· BT announces major restructuring to accelerate path to profitability and ensure financial stability- this enabled a cost reduction programme that enabled the company to refocus on its core areas of expertise in providing trust and security for e-business. Baltimore focused on maximising return from its authorisation and public key based authentication technology. As part of the restructuring, a reduction of 0 positions was made.

· Resignation of CEO, Fran Rooney

00

· Troubled Irish security firm

· Sold 11,000 shares of Japanese subsidiary Baltimore Technologies Japan.

· Shareholding of BT reduced from 6% to 1%.

· This trans action is part of the BT ongoing restructuring plan announced last year to refocus the company on its core area of expertise.

· CEO’s main objective- “ Whilst we are committed to our global presence and brand, it is cost effectiveness, local distribution and innovative partnerships which will determine our long-term competitiveness”. (Bijan Khezri)

What’s happening now- 00

· BT (London) announces Board and Senior Management changes

· Posts notice of extraordinary General Meeting- to seek approval for the proposed disposal of BT PKI business to be TRUSTED.

· Company intends to sell residual shortly and will therefore seek to ensure that shareholder value is maximised by pursuing one of a number of options available to it





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Learning to Learn

The most important feature of learning is making the basic effort to discover key facts on your own. The cutting and pasting that is becoming increasingly popular since the web has made it possible to find a wide range of material has little to do with learning. Monkeys could accomplish the same thing if banana oil were spread on the keys of a computer keyboard.

Even worse, much of the cutting and pasting done by students today involves theft of material from other people. It is dishonest or even illegal in many cases. Perhaps the saddest thing is that few instructors currently teach the limits of what constitutes acceptable use of other peoples? work. Students submit papers that are almost entirely stolen without even realizing that they are violating important rules.

However, the saddest thing is that people just don?t learn from this process. Even if you do a weak job on your own, you will learn more than if you steal someone else?s work. In the long run, your grades will be better if you learn to learn and you also will do better on the job. Employers frequently complain to university faculty about the fact that new graduates have limited ability to learn and upgrade their skills on the job. Of course, the comments are not that polite ? terms like ?worthless? are applied to people who graduated with respectable grades from recognized universities.

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Since Stephen Hymer introduced the concept of disadvantages of foreignness

in 160, it has received scholarly attention from various fields. Although

Hymers definition of the liability of foreignness (i.e., costs of doing

business abroad) seems rudimentary, the concept has helped us to better

understand the behavior, decisions, and performance of MNEs during

international expansion. Indeed, most foreign direct investment (FDI)

theories assume that foreign subsidiaries are at a disadvantage relative to

domestic firms with respect to some aspects of doing business in

host-countries. To succeed in foreign markets, international companies need

to overcome the liability of foreignness through the commitment of dynamic

capabilities that can generate ownership-specific advantages superior to

those of local firms.

While the concept of the liability of foreignness has become more widely

used, the majority of the writing has been anecdotal in nature, and few

studies have rigorously investigated it, theoretically or empirically. Most

MNE and FDI research has focused on investigating the sources and types of

advantages, such as intangible assets, foreign investors must posses to

overcome whatever disadvantages they face. While the success of FDI does

depend on the advantages investors possess, disadvantages faced in the

host-country also affect performance. Understanding the nature of

disadvantages facing foreign subsidiaries could uncover ways to minimize

these liabilities of foreignness and improve the management of FDI.

At the turn of this new century, MNEs, whether large or small, are operating

in a global environment that differs in many aspects from the international

setting over the past decades. Many emerging markets provide MNEs with new

business opportunities but enormous liabilities of foreignness as well. Such

liabilities are derived and heightened not only from the complexity and

uncertainty of the regulatory and legal environment, but also the

specificity and criticality of the social and cultural environment. The

coexistence of more promising opportunities and higher liability of

foreignness in this new international context has many MNEs adjusting their

market entry, local operations, and global integration strategies.

There are several challenges to improving our understanding of liabilities

of foreignness. A primary challenge is that this construct is not well

developed or defined in the literature. Another challenge stems from the

idiosyncratic nature of these liabilities. Because host-country environments

differ significantly, the types of liabilities of foreignness vary across

countries. Consequently, increased understanding requires investigation of

specific liabilities of foreignness in many different focal countries.

Seeking to help advance our understanding of liabilities of foreignness, the

Journal of International Management is soliciting papers for an upcoming

special issue. A variety of theoretical and empirical approaches to

investigate this construct will be considered for this special issue. The

following list is meant to be suggestive and is by no means exhaustive.

Theoretical papers defining, developing, or modeling this

concept For instance, how should it be accurately defined? What are major

environmental conditions influencing the level and pattern of the liability

of foreignness? How is it linked with the antecedent and consequence

factors? What should be appropriate strategic response to mitigating this

liability while expanding internationally? How should it be positioned in

the Ownership-Location-Internalization framework? How does this liability

influence the evolutionary process of internationalization? What are key

strategic assets, resources, or capabilities MNEs can leverage in order to

attenuate this liability, and how should these assets, resources, or

capabilities be deployed and configured in order to mitigate specific

liabilities of foreignness? Papers investigating interactions, theoretically

or empirically, between MNEs competitive advantages and liabilities of

foreignness are also welcome.

Qualitative or quantitative empirical research

operationalizing or investigating specific liabilities of foreignness in

focal countries For example, is it necessary to differentiate between

overall and specific liabilities? How should they be operationalized and

measured? In a focal country, particularly an emerging market, what are

reasonable indicators or proxies for these liabilities? For specific

liabilities, are there any components that are common to all countries while

others are peculiar only to a specific country? How does the liability

affect MNE performance at either the subsidiary or the parent levels,

ceteris paribus? What are the organizational or strategic factors (parent or

subsidiary) that significantly reduce a hazardous effect of the liability?

Could a better relationship with a local government, for instance, help

reduce such an effect?

Well-developed case studies investigating aspects or types

of liabilities of foreignness It is particularly interesting to compare and

contrast different experiences, and ultimately consequences, of MNEs which

have dealt differently with the same liability of foreignness.

Papers must be received by March 1, 001. Authors should prepare manuscripts

in accordance with JIMs style guide. All submissions will be subjected to

the usual review process and judged based on the following criteria

conceptualization of this construct, advancement of our understanding these

liabilities of foreignness, likely utility to researchers and practitioners,

and novelty of the arguments advanced by the papers. Submissions (in

quadruplicate) and inquiries should be directed to

The Strategic Management Society has created Interest Groups to foster the generation of new ideas in a more interactive forum, providing a means for integrating its members as well as members-to-be (A-academics, B-business practitioners and C-consultants) in creative discussions on themes of common interest.

The Interest Group ?Managing Knowledge? organizes two kick-off workshops to launch its activities. The workshops will be devoted to the exploration of ?The Role of Knowledge and Learning in Strategic Management?. The emergence of what is increasingly recognized as a Knowledge Economy has dramatically changed the conditions for business and management, opening up new ways to think about strategy and creating urgent needs for addressing the issues of managing learning and knowledge.

We are inviting scholars as well as practitioners to jointly participate in the exciting exploration of innovative and creative ways of studying, theorizing and developing new concepts and tools to address the complex issues of building and leveraging knowledge. The workshop format will provide a set of in-depth interactive discussions, making it possible to explore issues such as

-What exactly is organizational knowledge ? How to go about conceptualizing and investigating learning and knowledge ? Are existing theoretical models of knowledge of any use for practitioners ? What can we learn from the variety of experiments which companies conduct on Knowledge Management ?

-How does organizational learning take place and how does it feed into knowledge ? How does it contribute to innovation processes ? How is it affected by innovation ? Can we learn more about communities of practice ? How useful is storytelling ? Is it relevant to study languaging ? How is knowledge shared and transmitted in strategic alliances ?

-How do organizations memorize what they have learnt and what they know ? What is the social capital of an organization ? How can firms build strategies to best manage knowledge ? How can organizations manage their knowledge workers ?

-How can organizations best leverage their knowledge base strategically to build competitive advantages ? How promising and useful is the real options approach ? To what extent and how is strategy formulation affected by the new form of competition brought about by the so-called Knowledge Economy ?

-etc.

The very open character of the Interest Group on ?Managing Knowledge? and the workshop format of both kick-off events with focus on exchange and discussion mean that we welcome management researchers from different disciplines as well as practitioners with different interests in knowledge to take an active part in the discussions.

We encourage participants to join for both meetings, in Durham on April 14-16, 00 and in Paris on September , 00, the day just before the SMS 00 conference starts.

Call for Contributions & Papers

-Participants willing to contribute to the preparation and content of the workshops are kindly invited to write a one to three page contribution, sending it before Feb 1st for the Durham event and before July 1st for the Paris event. These contributions may raise specific issues around the general theme, address a specific point, suggest a research agenda, etc. These contributions will feed into the structuring of the workshops. The organizers may decide to circulate some of these contributions to registered participants prior to the workshops.

-The format of the events do not really allow for formal presentations of papers. However, those who wish to submit a paper for the workshop are invited to send a page abstract (typical SMS conference format) or, if available, a full paper before Feb 1st 00 for Durham and before July 1st 00 for Paris. These will be reviewed by at least two members of the Core team of the Interest Group. Acceptance of papers will be notified to presenters one month later.

All contributions should be sent to Thomas Durand both by e-mail ( thd@ecp.fr )

and in three paper copies Thomas Durand, Ecole Centrale Paris, 5 Ch√Ętenay, France

Workshop fee for the Durham event will be £5 (approx. Euro 500). This includes accommodation at the University of Durham Business School plus all meals. Bus transportation (at cost) to and from Newcastle Airport will be arranged for those arriving and departing by air.

Workshop fee for the Paris event (the Interest Group workshop on Sept only) will be 100 ? (Euro 100). This includes coffee breaks, lunch and documentation.

For accommodation in Paris, participants should follow SMS indications for the 00 conference.

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DESCALING SOLUTION Generally, a flush through descaler uses

about .5 to .75 fluid ounces (1 to 1.5 tablespoons, or 8 to 1 grams)

of citric or tartaric (grape) acid powder dissolved in 1 liter of

water. This is a .5% to .5% solution, equivalent to % to 50%

dilute lemon juice. Cleancaf and other coffee manufacturers descalers

use this formula. Theoretically, these amounts will dissolve about 1

to 18 grams of scale per liter, but that would require leaving the

solution in for several days; in practice, it is used for an hour or

two to dissolve up to 5 grams of scale.

The formula is mild enough to be harmless to espresso machine

components, but it will come out of brass or copper machines with a

slight greenish tinge. This comes from milligram levels of dissolved

copper and is no cause for alarm.

5 lb bags of citric or tartaric acid cost about $10 at home

brewers or soapmakers supply stores. This is roughly a 0 year

supply

DESCALING INTERVALS Know the hardness of the water youre

using, and how much you use the machine. Descale when accumulations

are between .5 and 5 grams. More often is a waste of time, less often

may result in scale build up. Check out section 1.7 for instructions

on determining your set ups scaling rate.

SINGLE BOILER MACHINES For single boiler machines, preventive

descaling is no problem, just follow the instructions given by the

manufacturer. In general, this involves filling the boiler, letting

the solution work for about ten minutes, and replacing it by running

it out of the steam wand under pump pressure. This procedure is

repeated three to five times, until about a liter of descaler is used

up. Then the machine is flushed with water until any taste is gone.

Manufacturers recommendations differ on whether the brewhead

should be flushed or not. This is not surprising. The waters

temperature drops and LI rises as it moves from the boiler to the

head, so scale wont form there. In scaled machines however, fragments

can move from the boiler into the head, fouling the gicleur valve. My

guess is that with regular descaling, flushing the head is unnecessary

but harmless.

I do not know if the dual boiler Techno can be descaled in

this way, or if there is some procedure peculiar to it.

HEAT EXCHANGERS HX machines have two things to descale, the

boiler and the heat exchanger(s). Any descaling of a plumbed in

machine will involve moving the water inlet pipe to a tank that can

hold the solution.

Doing the heat exchanger is as easy as a single boiler

machine. Just run descaler through it until it exits the brewhead (or

HXed tap). Leave the descaler in for 5 to 10 minutes with the machine

off (or to 4 with it on), then run out a /4 cup worth, repeat six

times until youve used up a liter of descaler. If the boiler refill

comes on during this period, very little harm is done, since it will

be adding only 0 ml or so to a liter or more of boiler water. Boiler

flushes (see below) can be scheduled after an HX descaling to minimize

this problem even further. However, ONLY USE CITRIC OR TARTARIC ACID

FOR HX MACHINE DESCALING, since if any remains in the boiler its no

big deal, whereas smelly vinegar or cleancafs detergent could be a

problem even at low concentrations.

HX MACHINE BOILERS Descaling the boiler is much more of a

headache. If you cook, you know that scale preferentially forms at the

waterline. This means that filling the boiler with descaling solution

only to the autofill line is not going to be very effective, since the

descaler will barely be in contact with the bulk of the scale.

Disconnecting the autofill (a wand like device sticking out of the top

of the boiler with a single wire attached) will fill the boiler to a

higher level and allow the descaler to work on this rim.

In machines with a direct boiler tap, the boiler can be filled

by opening the water tap, and letting the autofill refill the boiler

with descaler. When thats done, close the tap, and disconnect the

autofill for 0 seconds or so to fill the boiler a little above the

regular water line. On machines without a direct boiler tap, the

autofill has to be disconnected, and the fill may have to proceed by

flushing the boiler through the steam wand. If theres an easily

accessible drain, it may be easier to use it in conjunction with the

autofill.

If youre draining via the steam wand, dont let the machine

get too cold, otherwise the vacuum breaker will leak.

Disconnecting the autofill at the sensor risks shifting the

sensors depth, so its best to buy a spade lug and its mate, or an

inline switch that is rated for 10C ambient, and use them to make a

disconnect in the wire to the sensor. One can even extend the wiring

so this can be done without removing the case (i.e. so its reachable

at the water tank).

Once the boiler is filled with descaler, leave it in for two

and half hours with the machine off, or one hour with the machine on.

The descaler is flushed out using the same procedure that

brought it in, either via the tap, steamwand or drain. Keep flushing

and refilling until theres no more lemon taste. This may take about

twice as much water as is usually in the boiler. Its best to refill

the boiler with RO water (see below). Add 5% to 10% tap water to keep

the autofill happy.

4. BOILER FLUSHING

Obviously, no one in their right minds would want to go

through the hassle of doing a boiler descaling at monthly or bimonthly

intervals. Fortunately, one can reduce the descaling requirement to

virtually nothing, even when running the 0 mg/l hardness, 50 mg/l

alkalinity water best for coffee by using this trick.

If the boiler autofill only runs to replenish water lost by

steaming, it only amounts to a few ounces per day. Suppose the water

in the boiler starts out very soft. Then these small additions of

moderately hard water wont bring it to scaling levels for at least a

week or so.

So once a week, put very soft water into your tank and flush

the boiler with it until the water has been softened down. The

flushing technique is the same as that described in the descaling

section. Then put your regular nuetral to moderately hard espresso

water back in and enjoy your shots with complete confidence. If you

regularly use boiler water for Americanos, etc., or do a lot of

steaming, adjust the frequency of soft water flushing to match [see

section 1.7]. If this is impossible due to very high use or boiler

inaccessability, you will have to go with a softer non-scaling water.

Straight RO can be used for this flushing since enough

minerals will generally remain to operate the autofill sensor. If the

pump doesnt go off due to low minerals, simply shut the machine and

replace the RO water with the regular water. It will only take a few

seconds of pumping to raise the mineral content enough to deactivate

the autofill. Alternatively, add 5% to 10% tap water to make it

conductive enough.

Even if boiler safe water is used, the boiler needs to be

flushed occasionally. The frequency can be calculated using the data

in section 1.

If these procedures are followed, theres technically no need

to descale the boiler at all. Nevertheless, an annual or biannual

descaling is wise to pick up any stray scale that may have formed due

to forgetfullness.

At the other end of the transaction-cost spectrum, transactions in goods or services that are difficult to measure or involve tacit knowledge or embedded information may be quite costly to manage through any form of inter-firm transfer. Repeated exchanges of this latter type may be more efficiently accomplished through full internalization within the hierarchy of a firm (Williamson, 185). Reliance upon US parent firms for operating routines or procedures may pose this type of problem for ventures. Operating routines and procedures may have important idiosyncratic or firm-specific features that are only imperfectly transferred or reproduced (Polanyi, 175). The implementation of operating procedures also may involve path-dependent learning and produce different results in different organizations (Mahoney & Pandian, 1; Nelson & Winter, 18).

Routines and procedures involving forms of knowledge that are difficult to codify are likely to take this form (Winter, 187). Efforts to supply these types of resources to an alliance may be inefficient and demand costly on-going involvement of personnel from parent firms in the operations of alliances. Complaints from US managers about high levels of support that must be provided to ventures in order to implement relatively modest alterations in inputs, specifications or technologies typically reflect this type of problem. The capacity to create and modify basic operating procedures and routines is a fundamental feature of organizational development, and failure to build the necessary capabilities internally may compromise the performance of a venture.

Dependence upon the US parent for operating resources such as materials, on one hand, routines and operating procedures, on the other, may have a negative impact on performance. This effect may be more readily observed for contributions of resources from the US parent than the Mexican parent. Operating resources of this type may involve some location-specific features when they are contributed by the Mexican parent, and it may be difficult to clearly distinguish operating resources from local resources in certain cases. US parent contributions of operating resources are less ambiguous and can be expected to have a more obvious adverse effect on the perceived performance of alliances.

Proposition Contributions of operating resources to the alliance by the US parent firm have a negative effect on alliance performance, as perceived by managers of the US parent firm

The three propositions above suggest a simple model of the relationship between different types of resource contributions and perceptions of alliance success (Figure 1). Combining these different types of resource contributions in a single model is appropriate, both because they may be interdependent and because they can be expected to simultaneously influence perceived performance. Contributions of certain strategic resources such as management personnel and technical skills can be expected to improve organizational development in the venture, which may have the effect of reducing the reliance of the venture on the US parent for basic operating resources. The three propositions above and the link between strategic and operating resources are represented by paths between constructs in the model in Figure 1.

Put Figure 1 about here

The approach to alliances outlined above has a good deal in common with research by Dunning (188) and Teece (186); however, it also differs from their work in certain important ways. Although Dunning (188) and Teece (186) both identified similar combinations of strategic advantage, local advantage, and transactional advantages as critical to alliances, their objectives were to explain the conditions that favor alliances as a form of organization. Their approaches involve ex post explanation based on underlying efficiency assumptions characteristic of economics (Kogut, 188; Tallman, 1).

The object of explanation here is quite different. Rather than explaining the incidence of alliances, the research is aimed gaining a better understanding of the conditions that are conducive to (perceived) success of alliance strategies. The observed alliances are not assumed to represent efficient solutions to economic organization under specifiable constraints. On the contrary, performance may vary among alliances depending, in part, on relationships with parent firms. This research also has different practical implications than work based on a more economic approach. Where the economically-oriented work primarily is aimed at identifying the appropriate form of organization for a specific type of exchange, this research is designed to explore the differential effects that the roles played by alliance participants may have on the perceived success of alliance strategies.



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law

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All the directors in OI Ltd have breached their duty of care and diligence. For the breach of fiduciary duty, in accordance with the AWA Ltd v Daniels case , Frances, Harry and Indigo breached their duty of care and diligence because as directors, they owe duty of care to the company and they failed to make enquiries about the motor racing team and OI Ltd¡¯s financial position. Besides, they never keep themselves informed about all aspects of the company¡¯s business operations when deciding to accept Greg¡¯s proposal. Although Harry and Indigo are both managers from different division, however in AWA case, it was established that the degree of care to be exercised is not limited by a director¡¯s knowledge or expertise and they must do more than merely represent their particular field of experience. They failed to do so and hence breach the fiduciary duty of care and diligence.

As for James, although he is not involved in business activities and has no particular skills which benefit the operation, in accordance to AWA case, he still is required to familiarize himself with the company¡¯s business and its operations and regular attendance at board meetings is required in assisting to monitor the company¡¯s business affair. In Vrisakis v ASC , James are still required to attend all meetings also. He would have known about the company facing financial difficulties if he had went for the meeting and familiarize himself with the company¡¯s business.

Greg breached the fiduciary duty of care and diligence which was established in AWA case that directors owe a duty of care to their company. Instead of informing OI Ltd about their financial status, he proposed to the directors about the loan and induced them by mentioning to them about the benefit from the publicity they will gain. Although he is a non-executive director, but in AWA case, the court state that a non-executive director should not be entitled to rely on information and have a lower standard of care compared to executive directors.

Frances, Harry and Indigo has breached s180 (1) , because a person who is also a managing director and executive director would not have been so ignorance about checking the company¡¯s financial status before approving the proposal by Greg and also a reasonable person would have checked the financial status in the motor racing team as well as the person managing it. Here, Frances breached the statutory duty of care, s180 (1), as a reasonable managing director would have taken more steps to make more enquiries and find more information.

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As for Harry and Indigo, they breached s180 (1), statutory duty of care as well. In ASIC v Adler case, they still have to make inquiries about the company¡¯s affairs. All the directors who have breached the duty of care and diligence do not have any defences as in section 180() because they did not satisfy all the business judgment rules .

Harry, manager of the motor vehicle insurance division. The duty to avoid conflicts of interests is breached where directors fail to disclose their material personal interests in transactions with the company . According to the case Furs Ltd. v Tomkies and Queensland Mines Ltd. v Hudson , a disclosure of interest to the general meeting of members or board of directors can avoid a breach of their fiduciary duty. Since Harry did not disclose his interest to OI Ltd, hence he breached his duty to avoid conflict of interest.

Directors breach their fiduciary duty if they enter into a contract where their interest is direct or indirect. This is because directors should obtain the best deal for the company and not be seen to put themselves in a position where they may further their own interest . To prove the breach of fiduciary duty of deriving personal profits by Harry, two proves are determined in Regal (Hastings) Ltd v Gulliver . First, Harry utilized his position as the manager of motor vehicle insurance division and special knowledge held by him as a director of OI Ltd to enter into contract with ITO which presumably will result in personal profit. In accordance with South Australia v Clark , Harry breached his fiduciary duty because he, as the director of OI Ltd (first company), must not exercise his power for the benefit or gain of his second company (Shifty Insurance Pty Ltd) without clearly disclosing his second company¡¯s interest to the first and obtaining OI Ltd¡¯s consent.

Under statutory law, Section 18 will be breached if officers and employees make improper use of their position to gain advantage for others . Harry¡¯s intention can be shown by him incorporating Shifty Insurance Pty Ltd and entered in the contract with ITO. Hence, according to Chew v R case, he has breached s18



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Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Indian Freedom Struggle

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THE INDIAN FREEDOM MOVEMENT

Overview

The case relates to the Indian Freedom struggle under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. The ‘abstract concept’ to be sold is the notion of freedom, something the people have not seen for the last 00 years. The ‘competitor’ is the British crown, which owns all the resources, including the media, the economy and the transportation and communications networks. The Britishers had immense physical and financial power and a global empire, which was ruled by ruthless and corrupt officials who had scant regard for justice.

In contrast, Gandhi was a physically weak person with a rather common personality. He had been away in South Africa for a long time and was unaware of the developments back home. He was also unaware of the culture prevalent in the country and the different languages spoken by the people.

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The ‘target customers’ in this case were the people of India, who were illiterate, ignorant and superstitious. There was a lot of ethnic diversity in terms of language and dialect. There was a high poverty ratio prevalent in the country and the people were opposed to the idea of any change in leadership. They were very apprehensive of the Britishers might and regarded them as next to God. To magnify Gandhi’s woes, they were reluctant to act and had a complacent attitude.

Freedom as it is did not entail any material cost; the only cost was opportunity cost- either loss of freedom or loss of life. Gandhi was not very popular either and hence, getting people to rally behind him would be a great problem.

Hence, promotion of the concept of freedom would be an uphill task. The people had forgotten the idea of freedom, and such an idea was alien to them. They could not even be given a demonstration of the product as it existed only at the conceptual level. Advertising or canvassing in any form would lead to persecution and possibly murder.

In light of the above facts, we recommend the following strategies to be followed.

Learn the culture of the country

Important part was to mix with local population and learn their mindset, try to win over their hearts. Talk to them, in signs and symbols if language not known.

Talk in the language of love.

Help those in need. Come into contact with opinion leaders in different communities.

Make them feel you are a part of them. Tell them indirectly that you are dissatisfied with your competitors.

Tell them about their glorious heritage. How competitors had destroyed it.

Travel throughout the country. Instigate people to fight for their religion, their motherland. (Religion and motherland are always burning issues). Maintain secrecy all the while.

Customer Education

Customer awareness is a crucial factor. Getting them aware of their options and the rights, showing them benefit of the new product viz. freedom was important.

But the price of new product is high in relation to the benefits, and often rewards were enjoyed by subsequent generations without any guarantees.

Reminding people of the old glorious days 150 years back, of all the resources that were there’s and exploited by monopolists was important.

Erstwhile Successful Market and Trial Run

The success of product in South Africa was to be conveyed to the people. Also Trial run of the product in small areas and good consumer response was important to be conveyed to the people. It was important for people to know all the movements that were successful, and all the sacrifices that there fellowmen gave.

Advertising

Advertising the product was difficult task in the age sans Internet, radio and television. The only medium - newspapers also banned from advertising the product. The only form of advertisement possible was by word of mouth.

To summarize, it was a case where all the theories of management and probably all the managers would fail. It was a case where management was defined.

In the end the people very well received it. The end came with getting new products and choices, and most importantly � getting freedom.



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Sunday, September 30, 2012

Career Essay

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I have always wanted to be able to do the same work that my father does. I have always found it fascinating when there are only a few people who organize, lead, and manage the people, materials, and processes of construction in a company. I always enjoy being outside and working with my hands. Over the summers I work for construction companies in Colorado, and want to continue that when I get out of College. I feel that if I come out of college with a BSBA in Real Estate and Construction management that I will be able to find a good job that will allow me to get my feet wet in the construction business. I then would be able to work my way up the corporate ladder, where I can become an owner of a Construction company just like my father.

Construction managers are the planners and the directors of the construction companies. They are similar to doctors in the respect that they are required to be on call 4 hours a day, something on the site might go wrong and need their immediate attention. There are many ways to become employed as a construction manager. They may be owners or employees of a construction management or contracting firm. They may also work under a contract as an employee for the contractor, developer, owner or management firm. They represent the owner or developer on the construction site, even thought they might not have a direct role in the actual construction. Construction managers determine the labor requirements that will be needed for a certain site. They are also responsible for ensuring that the work will be completed on time and correctly.

There has been a recent boom in business, which is requiring construction and industry executives and professionals. The construction of new buildings will always be necessary. “The construction industry is one of the more resilient industries in an economic slowdown, so even with signs of a slowing economy, there won’t be a sharp drop in business like there has been in prior cyclical declines,” says Robert A. Murray who is the vice president of economic affairs for McGraw-Hill company. Even if there is a slow down in the economy, there will always be the need for construction of new buildings because of the always-growing population.

In the year 000 construction managers held about 08,000 jobs in the US. 75,000 construction managers where self-employed, 4 percent where employed by specialty trade contractors, and 5 percent where employed in the construction industry. 8 percent where employed by general building contractors. The U.S. Commerce Department Census Bureau tells us that in February of 001 the construction put in place was estimated at 84. billion, which is an increase of 18. billion dollars from the past year. Both residential and construction companies are looking for experiment professionals, in all areas and levels of business.

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Businesses are looking for persons who not only have the education but also the experience from working on a construction site. Businesses are looking for people who are also experienced in handling tasks such as paper work and communicating with clients. Duane McClain, president of Construction Search Specialists Inc., said “During the past few years, many companies were in such desperate need of professionals that they moved inexperienced people with very little training into project manager and other management positions, often taking candidates right out of college. Today, companies are again looking for experience when hiring construction professionals.” A lot of the useful information is also learned in the field. A college degree isn’t required to work as management, but is a must for a vice president level.

Salary ranges depend on where you are in the U.S. Someone in New York City is going to receive more than someone who is working in the mid-west. The median annual earrings in year 000 for construction managers were $58,50. In the middle percent, construction management workers earned between $44,710 and $5850, when the top ten earned more than $10860, and the lowest ten earned less than $4,80. In 001, the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that candidates that had a bachelor’s degree in construction management earned an average of $40,740 a year. These numbers vary on the location, experience and education that an employee would have.

I know that I have wanted to own and run a construction company, but I will have to start at the bottom and work my way up. I feel that if I come out of college with a master’s degree that I would over qualified for building small buildings and not have enough experience to build the very large construction or work for the large management company. It is believed that job opportunities for construction managers will continue to be available through the year 010, due to the number of jobs that will need to be replaced and the growth. I feel that this will allow me to get in and start to receive my experience so I can begin my path to the top.





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