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Tuesday, January 31, 2012

to close to the bone

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trend and cleanly argues how the popular “new religion” has caused an unhealthy sacrifice of femininity that could possibly threaten the future study of America’s history and the opinions formed about this culture.


Several uncertainties remain regarding the somewhat merited interpretations of our new slenderness craze. Our society has transformed the non-fat diet into a “new religion.” Observations of historical art confirm that men and women strive for a body “close[r] to the bone” than ever before. On the contrary, slenderness has been admired in history on several occasions; in the 15th century thin women corresponded with the gothic cathedrals and their scaling heights. Although such cultures modeled long and thin women, they showed no signs of desiring boniness. The women kept nice curves and were fully busted.


Throughout most of the 0th century, the desired weight for women was entirely contradictory to today’s new definition of beauty. A person’s emotional stability was measured by the amount of fat she had on her body. Near 1850s, Catherine Beecher wrote of how weight was measured and concluded that a person’s own opinion of her weight determined whether or not she was too light or too heavy. The moment thinness came into fashion, old values with numbered scales were replaced with a much lighter standard weight.


Eventually, in the post-WWII era, the insurance companies were finally convinced that Americans were unhealthy and need to drop the pounds. Over time, weight-loss plans proved to prolong life and soon thereafter, fitness programs became popular. Americans that were classified as normal weight were now considered corpulent. But a lighter weight doesn’t always ensure a healthier or more fit person. Forcing sizes and shapes on a person only results in psychological and physiological problems. The new phobia of food has persuaded society that its no longer a basic necessity for healthy living and replaced it with the notion that food is deadly and must be avoided.


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In many ways, the Victorian sentiment toward sex can be closely correlated to the modern attitude toward food. People, especially women, battle with the issue of weight for several reasons. A man’s body is naturally closer to the desired “fit” body type than a woman’s body because she develops more fat in the unwanted areas such as the armpits, thighs, and stomach. In addition, a female’s standard for looking good is far more extreme than the man’s. In fact, 0-5% of all females are not satisfied with their current weight. Women have also made the weight issue a moral demand in today’s society. Furthermore, men have kept several masculine habits that have allowed less structured standards in fashion; public burping, scratching, and spitting are commonly practiced by men. Women have sacrificed femininity in order to meet social expectations where men have refused to do so.


A woman’s social and economical standing is still in many ways measured by her outward appearance. As a result, fashion plays a dominating role in the woman’s world by setting the size, shape, and color that a woman is expected to fit. By accepting the standards set by fashion, society is conforming to its interpretations of beauty, style, and importance. Revealing the new “bony” body has consumed today’s fashion world. It focuses on revealing women’s bottoms and tops by showcasing mini-skirts and tight, skimpy shirts. Instead of criticizing the trend for a no-fat body, health leaders advocated it. The wide acceptance and compliance of society and its authorities only catalyzed the problem and caused it to reach extremes. Now, women believe that they can and must have perfect bodies. Seid fears that when our culture is later studied, historians might assume that society praised the degradation of flesh. They could argue that our desire to be thin resulted from the issue of overpopulation assuming it was an attempt to fit people on Earth by making each person skinnier. In addition, they might imply that our culture had completely stripped women of their beauty.


The new idea of a lean body would most likely petrify even present-day anthropologists with the colorless and emaciated that is flesh revealed. The fashioned body looks stripped of all healthy and sexual characteristics that used to be highly valued. It would be appalling for women not to take a stand and revolt against the new standard that fashion has placed on them; not by omitting the existence of fashion and beauty but by disassembling the new desire of boniness that is degrading women as a whole. Socially controlled eating restrictions simply satisfy oneself and one’s culture and therefore are unacceptable. However, sacrifices made for a religion satisfies a higher deity and thus, should be allowed.


The new desire to satisfy fashion and thinness robs women of normal, healthy and happy lives. People should neglect the “new religion” of a no-fat obsession and replace it with the old ideas of self-value, self-improvement, and a healthy lifestyle.


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Monday, January 30, 2012

Paparazzi in Thailand

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PAPARAZZI; COULD IT BE SEEN ONE DAY IN THAILAND?


Introduction


The paparazzi are photographers who will certainly do anything to achieve their aim, gaining the profit from the photos of famous people and their families. They sell the photos to tabloids or anyone else who is willing to pay them a high price. ( Thesis Statement) This report will discuss and examine an opportunity of whether paparazzi could be seen one day in Thailand. Firstly, it will remind us the significant power of media in the present world and explain how people who relate to the process of generating the media unexpectedly support the paparazzi initiation in the media world. Furthermore the report will reveal the origin of the word “paparazzi” that was released first time in Italy and shortly expanded across the country in the negative terms. Then it will refer to some of apparently violent cases from the celebrities who became unfortunate victims of paparazzi; Princess Diana and Catherine Zeta Jones with her husband - Michael Douglas. It will then talk about the media ethics, moral, the definition of privacy and human rights, including show the conflict of celebrities privacy and public rights to know the celebrities lives. Lastly this report will offer the idea of the paparazzi motivation of who support their actions; the readers, the media commercial agency and paparazzi themselves.


The Media Power in the Present World


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In the modern world we are undeniable against the media power in the present world which nearly absolutely influence on our life and society. Everyday we get the instant information from all over the world through media; newspaper, magazine, television, and Internet. The media already globalize industry, which provided us the interesting and updated news in our society. The information that the media give us is necessary for our daily life and the future life decision. We watch television, read newspaper and magazine for entertainment, knowledge and updated events of running world. We access the Internet with overwhelming information and business issue. Each of generation consumes the product from media in the difference ways. Technology development contributes the media to become the important part of our lives. Everything and every events happen around us are brought to people’s acknowledgement so fast since the technology has stepped into the advance level such as some of equipments like digital camera, live news report via Internet and satellite network. Because of those high advantages of media technology, some questions will follow along; how we can manage or what we should manage with the media for proper influence on our lives when the world exists in the plentiful Information Age.


“Marshall Macluhan pointed out that these new media links have reshaped the world “ in the images of a global village”. The people in media direction need to adapt their roles following the world as well. If the public have interest to know anything, they will quickly respond to find out for them. Even though their behavior or their ways to get that desire for the public lacking of ethic and moral of mass media convention, they will be careless for those kinds of abstract things except their benefit.


The paparazzi who is relevant in the media line trying to take photo of the celebrities for selling to media commercial agency. Both of paparazzi and agency get high profit for their work that is why the paparazzi grow up in the media world


PAPARAZZI HISTORY


The word paparazzo were first released on Italian film “ La Dolee Vita” in 160. La Dolee vita, it was the story of one tired journalist, Marcello, and his photographer, “Paparazzo”. Federico Fellini who was director of the film describes the word of paparazzo; “ Paparazzo suggests to me a buzzing insect, hovering darting stinging. Moreover, Fellini drew a picture of the paparazzo’s character that looks like a vampirish insectile, implied that paparazzi is like mosquitoes and also parasites. After that, “ Paparazzi” is a word to explain the behavior of photographers who chase up the celebrities to get the information about them to reveal in the public the same as the act on film.( Jennifer,14)


However, the word paparazzi in the English language did not relate to “ La Dolee Vita”. It was released in an article, “ Paparazzi on the Prowl” on Time magazine in United States in 161. The article explained “ a ravenous wolf pack of freelance photographers who stalk big names for a living and fire with flash guns at a point blank,” with groups of paparazzi picture was blocking Prince’s car visiting Rome. From the time, paparazzi shortly expanded into the part of mass media and across the public all over the world. ( 14)


Some cases of the celebrities whom are a victim of paparazzi


Princess Diana


Princess Diana’s death was the tragic event for a whole world. Paparazzi are being the accuse of social in the incident. Princess Diana died on 1 august 17 and it became hot issue denouncing an ugly of paparazzi behavior. Because of escape a group of paparazzi during traveling in Paris, the car that she had been in got an accident. (Edwin, 1)


According to the article “ Who shares the Blame?” on TIME magazine in the issue September 15th, the paparazzi followed Princess Diana and her rich boy friend, Dodi al Fayed, after they left a restaurant where they had a dinner together. A group of paparazzi chased up Diana’s car, Mercedes Benz, into the darkness of night, so the driver, Paul, lost control the car and crashed into the side of the tunnel. The car hit the other side of the tunnel and the wall. There are four persons in the car; three of them, Diana, Dodi and Paul died in the crash. The fourth person is a bodyguard who was still alive. Lacayo writes, “The speedometer was frozen on impact at 10 mph.” Dodi’s family denied that statement and they said it was on zero. The French police refuse to confirm officially either claim…and police speculate that the Mercedes arrived at the tunnel entrance…. at about 80 to 100 m.p.h.(Richard, 17 )The CBS News reported paparazzi were at the scene of the accident ,but they did not help her and the others in the car. They snatched for taking a photo of the dying princess instead.


It is believed the driver was speeding to avoid the paparazzi, who were chasing them on motorcycle. If the paparazzi had not chased Diana that night for special one shot, she would be alive today. This is the reason the paparazzi are being blamed for the death of Diana. Another speculation is that when the paparazzi flashed their cameras in the dark night, it may have blinded the driver. (http/// www.Kirtland.cc.mi.us/~chronicl/oct7p4.html)


Catherline Zeta Jones and Michael Douglas


Not only Princess Diana was disturbed, but the others celebrities are also invaded by paparazzi. For example, Catherline Zeta Jones and Michael Douglas got to a photographer sneaked into their wedding in 000. Zeta Jones told that she was once scared by photographer who jumped out of the night time to get a shot of her. Another time , she crashed her car into a lamp post as the result of trying to escape from a paparazzi. Now there is a new breed of photographers, know as the paparazzi, that are hated by most movie stars and other famous people alike.


Media problem Privacy, human rights and ethic


As we see from some of celebrities cases who are a victim of the hunter I the name of paparazzi. I think it is a good opportunity to examine the ethical and moral consciousness for the role of the mass communication operation. There are many reproach against paparazzi of their behavior ravaging into the society. Someone propose to issue a law to prevent and limit the terrible danger that may happen when the paparazzi follow the celebrities. It is not wrong for photographers to take pictures of the famous people, but it is wrong to take pictures without their permission. The lack of privacy and human right realization of media may cause the paparazzi problem.


Privacy is an ambiguous concept that is not easy to define. “One common view is that the right to have privacy means the right to be left alone or control unwanted publicity about one personal affairs. In contrast, the media are in the business of not leaving people alone. Their duties are in the direction of revelation, not concealment”. () Thus, the balance of the individual’s interest in privacy is against the interest of the public in derivative of information. The public right to know can cause the conflicts with the individual rights. Where should the lines be drawn as to what is permitted and what is not? That is still being question among people into the media line.


There is always a serious problem to debate about the right of the public to know and the right of the individual to deserve privacy.


Nowadays, the press freedom directly invade into the privacy and human rights, but some privacy are essentially attacked for the news informing to the public. The gossips news photographers such paparazzi ought to concerns a choice between what he saw as his respectable job and the privacy of one’s conscience.


As the influence of mass communication constantly widely spread and almost touch in every parts of society. It is important that the mass media should be more concerned in ethics and morality as well. That is the best way to reduce the conflict between journalists and the person who is a source of the news. Richard Johannesen defines ethics in the concept of responsibility in his book Ethics in Human Communication, stated that “responsibility includes the elements of fulfilling duties and obligations, of being accountable to the other individuals and groups, and of being accountable as evaluated by agreed up on standards…That is, the responsible communicator would carefully analyze claims, soundly assess probable consequences, and conscientiously weigh relevant values. In a sense, a responsible communicator is responseable. She or he exercise the ability to and communication of others in sensitive, thoughtful, fitting ways” (). On the other hand, we can think of mass media ethics is the great “responsibility” on the part of both media creators and consumers.


The real motivation


What is the real motivation of the paparazzi performance?. The photographers, the celebrities, the media agency or the people who buy the newspaper and magazine. All of these may be a good answer as we can consider the role of them to be a paparazzi supporter.


The people who used to buy or consume the information of the celebrities and show the picture to their friend and family. They are the one of the motive part, sharing the responsibility for the celebrities invasion, accuse of promoting paparazzi behavior. For instance, Sue Cater, associate professor of journalism at Michigan State University, claims that the paparazzi is a segment of journalism who drive the market. The larger of the demand is the more aggressive paparazzi. She said that “ the people who buy paparazzi material are taking a role in the entire process”. Moreover, Because of curiosity of human nature, we love and crazy superstars and the famous person, so we need to know about their lifestyle or some secret . That is the cause of paparazzi spy on people and show the secret picture in the public.


The second person of the real motivation is the media agency. Society pointed at the media blame them with creating a market for the celebrities report. In highly competition into the mass media environment , the agency decided to take time and find out what can make the high profit. The media; magazine ,newspaper , television use the gossip of the celebrities for sale and attract the consumers by showing the photo of them such as Hollywood gossip. According to Charles Spencer, Diana’s brother used to blame in the media “ Every proprietor and editor of every publication that have paid for the intrusive and exploitative photographs of her has blood on his hands”. It show us in the sense of some guilty of the media that hold with the paparazzi and let them make the cruel benefit to their companies. They spend a lot of money about hundreds and thousands of dollars to get the perfect of the celebrities shot for printing or present on their work.


The last one is the paparazzi themselves as they are always in the role of hunter. The bad effect easily occur when they stalk the celebrities. They make a career for earn money and the agency give high price for the best shot. For example, the picture of Diana and Dodi, kissing on the yacht in St.Tropez viila in July 17, sold in the United States for 00,000 dollars, or the picture of the Diana’s car crash were offered for one million dollars around the world. When they get the high income for one job and there will be the group of agency who need the photo to display to the public, so paparazzi eager to risk everything for one shot that can make them to be a millionaires.


Why do the idea of Thai paparazzi emergence come out?


Since Twentieth century, the fifth information revolution in Asia, “digital electronic revolution,” effect on Thai mass media. Moreover, the economic crisis in 15 forced Thai media developed their own organization and company stability. The globalization connect the media in each of country into the similar system. Naturally, Thai media had to adapt themselves as well. There are many ways that Thai media using to modernize. The one way is to copy the foreign method for management and presentation of information and use the role model international media to produce their work . For example , The reporters of channel report news the same style as CNN. They did not merely copy the style of news report, but also imitated the idea or concept of T.V program such as millionaire game. Thus the entertainment news were created in the same way of the western. It has the sorts of stars gossip program on every Thai television.


Almost of Thai people are interested in the media for entertainment. The private media company can make a lot of money per a year. Present Thai media today enter into the game of business world, so the goal to report also change to respond the high competition. They do not concern in the ethics or moral consciousness. The aim of the company is to succeed in the best seller or the highest rating instead. The economic can bring the paparazzi to be new group in Thai media, if no name photographer take a photo of Thai celebrities or star, the editor of the entertainment magazine may decide to inform it to the public. Furthermore Thai people love to know about the personal affairs of the celebrities.


Additionally Thai fan club who get crazy of popular idol is the other factor to support paparazzi in Thailand. When Thai teens love pop singer or superstar they will follow their favorite superstar to everywhere and take a photo of them for every shots by digital camera. After that the fan club of popular idol produce the website on the Internet. This action is like the behavior of paparazzi, but they do not sell the picture. On the other hand, some of them just desire to keep for their collection. Thai people always admit the western culture into the society and the beginning of paparazzi taken in Europe. Some people favor foreign movie star and popular singers point to Thai press freedom.


As I say that is the tendency of paparazzi coming out one day in Thailand and there are many interesting situations motivating the new career, paparazzi, in Thai media. In case that Thai society still need to carry on facing the mistreated way upon media management of both Thai media generator and Thai media consumer, we will inevitably encounter the new undesirable race of Thai media creator � paparazzi. All of these reasons; power of media in the present world, curiosity in human nature, lacking of rules and respect in privacy and human rights create the idea of Thai paparazzi is going to be born in Thai Mass Media Circle to me.





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Aboriginal History: Reconciliation

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Aboriginal History Reconciliation


Since European settlement, Aboriginal History has been a spiral of mistreatment and death. I believe that the Australian Government should say “sorry”. This would cause a recognition of past injustices. The reasons that I believe the Australian Government should say “sorry” is because of


1. Reserves.


. Missions.


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. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths.


In 188, the Aborigines Protection Board was set up in New South Wales. It’s purpose was to ‘smooth the pillow of the dying race’ and thus hasten the extinction of the Aboriginal people. Two of the methods used were Missions and Reserves.


A Reserve was an area of land set aside for Aboriginal people to live under the control of the Europeans. It was like a refugee camp. The Aboriginals even had to ask permission to leave the boundaries of the camp.


On the reserves they were given basic housing and just enough food to survive. Many were also shipped off to foreign territories, often to share accommodation with Aboriginal tribes who were traditionally their enemies, or whom they could barely communicate with as a result of language barriers. Distance from their land, and coexistence with incompatible groups caused a large breakdown in Aboriginal society as kin relationships, marriage rules and cultural practices were distrupted. In many cases, particularly on Christian-run missions, Aboriginal people were given European names and were not allowed to speak their own language or practice their own ceremonies as these were considered heathen. This is a reason for the Australian Government to say “sorry” because


1. This was a deliberate attempt at cultural genocide.


. This deliberate attempt at cultural genocide was intended to break Aboriginal spirit and contribute to their ‘inevitable’ extinction.


In the late 0th century, Australia’s indigenous peoples were


• times more likely to be put in jail than other Australians.


• 0 times more likely to be picked up by the police.


• Less likely to receive bail or have legal representation in court.


• More likely to plead guilty.


Indigenous peoples suffered many injustices under the Australian legal system.


In 18, the Commonwealth Government ordered a royal commission to investigate these matters and the general issue of the treatment or Aborigines within the Australian legal system.


The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody made recommendations when it released its report in 11. It recommendations described the problems Aborigines encountered whilst in prison and the factors which had contributed to their imprisonment. These included


• The negative and often racist attitudes of many police officers, which led to the over-policing and physical and verbal abuse of indigenous people


• The lack of private living space for indigenous peoples, which made the incidence of drunkedness more public than that of any other Australian which made those involved easier targets


• The much higher numbers of police on duty in areas with high Aboriginal population, and that this itself frequently led to hostility between the two groups.





This is a reason for the Australian Government to say “sorry” because


1. Aboriginals were not given the rights which they are entitled to.


. The police force unjustly targeted the Aboriginals.


. Aboriginal crimes were unjustly publicized, which caused a lack or respect and compassion to become present within the Australian community.


Ever since colonization, the indigenous peoples of Australia have been oppressed and persecuted. On the Reserves they were treated as refugees, even prisoners in their own land. During the course of this century they have been more likely to be put into prison, more likely to be stopped by police and less likely to receive even the basic rights that they are entitled to. It is time that the Australian Government recognized the injustices of the past, and said sorry.





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Sunday, January 29, 2012

How To Make Smores

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Have you ever searched for that perfect snack? Well, I have a solution. Smores of course! They are extremely delicious and sweet.Not many people are sure how to make these great hunger settlers, butI know the perfect way.First, you need to get your supplies. they will include hersheys chocolate bars, marshmellows, and graham crackers. you can use the microwave or the authentic way with a campfire. you just put the marshmellow on the end of a long and clean stick. make sure the stick you use is clean because you dont want to get any germs or bugs in your smore. then you roast it above the fire to your desired warmness. next place the warm, melting marshmellow in between the graham cracker and chocolate pieces. the marshmellow will melt the chocolate and make a delicious, sweet, and satisfying smore. If you want to make the smore the easy way with the microwave than, follow these easy steps... First you put the graham cracker on a plate. break the graham cracker in half, but big enough that a marshmellow and chocolate pieces can fit without going over the side. place your choice of however many chocolate pieces you want on the bottom of both sides of graham crakers. than put a marshmellow on top of the chocolate nad place the other side of the graham cracker together. make sure it looks like a sandwich. than place the plate and smore in the microwave. cook it for seconds in teh microwave. check on it if you hear a pop. than when its done... ENJOY!


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Saturday, January 28, 2012

Structure of a paper

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The last time I wrote something that took time and effort and it was not assigned in class was when I answered the essay question for the application form to get into BGSU. I chose to write about how living in Europe these last seven years has affected my perspective on life and me as a person. I did not do anything before I started writing my essay. I usually just plan out a short outline of just some ideas about what I have to write in the paper and then start writing. But for this assignment I just choose to start writing and to keep reading over my work and changing things until I was content. Sometimes I like to use a brainstorming web to formulate my ideas. Although, before I even started writing my essay for BGSU I talked to my college counselor from the school about my idea. She told me it was good and offered a little advise about how I should write the paper. Once I completed the paper and I felt it was of a good standard I gave the BGSU essay to my college counselor to look over. She gave it back to me with very little corrections and said that it was good. I then went over it one last time before printing it off to put into my application for BGSU.


Often when I am writing a paper, I will re-read my sentences and grammatical structure and decide that I don’t like it or that I could phrase it better. So I often re-write and change my sentences when writing a paper, as I did for my application essay. I also like to try and read my paper when I have written it to make sure everything sounds good and flows together. Since the essay I wrote was to help get me into Bowling Green and was attached to my application, I took lots of time and made sure that it represented my best writing. When writing the paper, I would write a whole paragraph and then delete it because I didn’t like how it sounded. I feel the most useful tool for me when I am writing a paper is having one or two people read over it. That way people can catch mistakes that I didn’t or even ones I wasn’t aware of.







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The Value in Critical Thinking

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1. The issue can be established in first paragraph. In the first sentence the author states a hypothetical question in which he/she is trying to provoke a response from the reader. The author assumes that every mother would choose the best physical and mental health for their baby, therefore setting the reader up for an agreeable stance on the issue of the author’s reasoning. The issue is ‘Should mothers breastfeed their babies instead of substituting a store-bought baby formula?’ After the author states the issue, all of the following statements try to persuade the readers that mothers should breastfeed their babies in order to ensure the best physical and mental health for the baby. Therefore we can assume that the author raises a prescriptive issue in which he/she is trying to raise questions on what should be done. From reading the rest of the passage following the first two lines, the reader is able to determine the author’s conclusion to the prescriptive issue. The conclusion is that, ‘Yes, mothers should breastfeed their children in order to give a newborn the chance to reach peak physical and mental health’.


. In this short passage the author does not clearly state a question or issue; consequently the reader must conclude it by the position the author takes throughout the passage. The first two sentences presents the dangers of doing drugs when pregnant and then states that mothers who do drugs are not fit to parent. At this point in the passage, the reader may feel that the issue is that mothers who do drugs are harming and causing irreparable damage to their unborn children. By reading the remainder of the passage the reader is able to understand the real issue, which is, ‘Should programs that are targeted at preventing pregnant drug users be further aided and supported by the government?’ Because the issue raised is about what should be done, the reader is able to establish that it is a prescriptive issue. It is apparent of the author’s concern for children of mothers who abuse drugs and his/her praise of the work that these programs do for drug users, the reader can easily establish the conclusion to the issue. The conclusion is, ‘The government should further fund and support these agencies designed for mothers using drugs.’


. In this final passage the author clearly states the issue that is of concern. The issue being presented by the author is, ‘Should university systems give extra weight to the grades of financially independent students in comparison to students who rely on their parents for finances?’. This issue posed by the author, as are the other two, is known as a prescriptive issue. In the first sentence the author does not only state the issue, but also his opinion on the issue, “…the university system should give extra weight to the grades of financially independent students”. The following sentences in the passage are used to present the disadvantages that students paying for their own tuition face. The author also states that since state universities are funded by the government, and a goal of the government should be equality, that at least state schools should adopt this policy in order to provide a more equal and accurate grading system. It is apparent that the conclusion is, ‘Yes universities should give extra weight to the grades of financially independent students’.


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Friday, January 27, 2012

Life of Napoleon Bonaparte - Narrative

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Napoleon Bonaparte


1. I Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1768, in Ajaccio,on the Island of Corsica, and was given the name Napoleone (in French my name became Napoleon Bonaparte). I was the second of eight children of Carlo (Charles) Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino Buonaparte, both of the Corsican-Italian gentry. No Buonaparte had ever been a professional soldier. Carlo, my father, was a lawyer who had fought for Corsican independence, but after the French occupied the island in 1768, he served as a prosecutor and judge and entered the French aristocracy as a count.


. I was Emperor of the French and was considered one of the greatest military commanders of all time. I even conquered the larger part of Europe and did much to modernise the nations I ruled. Through my fathers influence, I was educated at the expense of King Louis XVI, at Brienne and the École Militaire, in Paris. I graduated in 1785, at the age of 16, and joined the artillery as a second lieutenant.


. Once the revolution began I became lieutenant colonel in 171 with the Corsican National Guard. In 17, Corsica declared independence and being a French Patriot I moved to France with my family. There I was assigned a captains position in the army that was besieging Toulon, which was a naval base that was aided by a British fleet and was in a revolt against the French Republic. Soon after my being appointed, Toulon fell. Because of this result I Napoleon Bonaparte, was promoted to brigadier general at the ripe age of 4.


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4. In 175 I saved the revolutionary government by dispersing a disobedient mob that was in Paris (stupid peasants) In 176 I married the beautiful Jos�phine de Beauharnais, the widow of an aristocrat guillotined in the Revolution and the mother of two children.


5. In my early campaigns in 176, I was made commander of the French army in Italy. I defeated four Austrian generals in succession each of whom had superior numbers than I had. This forced Austria and its allies to make peace and sign the Treaty of Campo Formio. Later I led an expedition to Turkish-ruled Egypt, which I ended up conquering. On the down side, my fleet was destroyed by that dastardly British admiral Horatio Nelson, leaving me stranded in bloody Egypt.


6. However I changed the Egyptian government and law, abolishing serfdom and feudalism and guaranteeing basic rights. The French scholars I had brought with me began the scientific study of ancient Egyptian history.


7. In 17 I had a flaw in my record, I failed to capture Syria. In order to restore my honour I achieved a smashing victory over the Turks at Abu Qir (Abukir). France, meanwhile, faced a new coalition; Austria, Russia, and lesser powers had allied with our ancient enemy, Britain. I decided to leave my army and return to save France. While in Paris, I joined a conspiracy against the government. On November -10, 17, my colleagues and I seized power and established a new regime called the consulate. In 180 the constitution was revised to make me Napoleon Bonaparte consul for life, and again in 1804 to make me emperor. Each change the constitution received made the overwhelming assent of the electorate complete. In order to assure my power I crossed the Alps and defeated the Austrians at Marengo.


8. After that I then negotiated a general European peace that made the Rhine River as the eastern border of France. I also concluded by making an arrangement with the Pope ending the quarrel with the Roman Catholic Church that had arisen during the Revolution. By doing this it contributed to French domestic tranquillity. I then changed my plans to invade England and turned my Glorious French armies and attention against the Austro-Russian forces, and I then defeated them at the Battle of Austerlitz on December , 1805.


. I Napoleon Bonaparte seized the kingdom of Naples in 1806 and made my elder brother Joseph king. Then I converted the Dutch Republic into the kingdom of Holland for my brother Louis to rule. Last I established the Confederation of the Rhine (most of the German states) of which I was protector. I had meanwhile established the Continental System, a French-imposed blockade of Europe against British goods, designed to bankrupt what I called the “nation of shopkeepers”.


10. My Downfall came in 181, when my alliance with Alexander 1 had collapsed, I launched an invasion of Russia, which ended in a disastrous retreat from Moscow. The invasion of Russia itself was not obviously the foolhardy expedition it might have seemed. My French Army was logistically the most sophisticated since ancient times and had shown itself capable of operating as far east as western Russia. In the past, the Russians had been in the habit of giving up as soon as they lost a major field army. And since all their existing commanders had been personally beaten several times by myself, it was expected that with extra men and planning, the same would occur again.


11. The invasion officially began with the crossing of the Niemen River on June 4, 181. For My combined army of over 500,000 men the campaign got off to a poor start due to the massive loss of horses in the hot weather and the refusal of the Russians to give battle. By the time my army fought its first major battle at Smolensk, it had shrunk by half due to detachments, death and desertion. By the end of the retreat from Russia I had only 1,000 men left!


1. After that all Europe united against me, and although I fought on, and brilliantly, the odds were impossible. My marshals, in April of 1814, refused to continue the struggle. After that, the allies rejected my stepping down in order for my son to come to power. l was exiled to the Mediterranean Island of Elba.


1. Not being able to deal with being exiled I made a dramatic comeback. In March of 1815, I escaped from Elba, got to France, and marched on Paris. I did this by winning over the troops sent to capture me. In Paris, I made a new and more democratic constitution. The veterans of my old campaigns flocked to support me. Asking for peace from the allies, but instead they outlawed me. So as a result I decided to strike first.


14. The result of my striking first was a campaign into Belgium. This ended with the famous battle of Waterloo, where my French army was totally defeated, on June 18, 1815, by the Anglo-German armies under Generals Wellington and Blucher.


15. Once back in Paris, my followers begged me to keep fighting. Even with that the politicians withdrew their support. With all this pressure I Napol�on Bonaparte fled to Rochefort, there I ended up by surrendering to the captain of the British battleship Bellerophon. After that I was exiled to Saint Helena, which is a remote island in the south Atlantic Ocean, that is where I resided until my death by stomach cancer on May 5, 181.





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Thursday, January 26, 2012

animal rights

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Iams and Procter and Gamble. An investigation taped and recorded by Peta, shows the horrible pain these two companies have put animals through. Not only do they make animals suffer, they animals they have enslaved, have been there for 5 years or more in conditions that are so bad that even the peope who work there complain of the horrible ammonia stench that burns their eyes. Iams and P&G both promised that animals in their studies would never be euthanized, but in Petas investigation they documented the destruction of 7 of the 60 dogs whose muscles were hacked out of their legs. more of them were found dead in their cages several days after the muscle surgery, one of them had been suffering for 11 days prior to her death. If any of these dogs get sick or have broken bones, they are killed rather than treated. This is only 1 labortory, there are dozens of other Iams labs across the country. This is only the beginning... if your heart can take anymore, and there is much more, read on ... www.iamsodead.com This is only one chapter in the book of cruelity by Procter and Gamble. They also have many products in which they use cruel animal testing that is not required by law. Each year, thousands of animals die in P&G labs. If we can decrease sales in all of their products, P&G might decide to use more modern, non-animals test methods used by other companies.Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus suck. The last time I went, I was in the first few rows, and when the tigers came out and I saw the look on their faces I could not help but cry. Everyone around me was amazed at the tigers and I wondered how they could not see the pain that I saw when I looked at these poor animals. The pain is no joke - large animals forced to live in cages that the Animal Welfare Act only requires that they have room to stand up and turn around, yet even these minimal regulations are routinely ignored. Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus are both constantly cited for violations. Furthermore there are no laws for training methods. After years of investigation, Peta had found that there are no kind animals trainers. A former Ringling Bros. employee commented on how the circus treated one animal, she was a sweet little bear that wouldnt hurt anyone, but she had trouble balancing on the hire wire. She was beaten with long metal rods until she was screaming and bloody. She became so neurotic that she would beat her head against her small cage. She finally died. A Hudson News reporter stated that one chimpanzee that was being trained was repeatedly struck with a sturdy club. The thumps could be heard outside the arena building, and the screams further than that. There is no way that these animals would do these tricks if they werent deathly terrified of their trainer. They are being forced to perform and the whips, chains and shackles are a constant reminder of this. Circuses dont have much money, so when an animal is sick, it is seldom seen by a veternarian. More often than not, they fail to provide the animals with simple food and water.


The March of Dimes uses your charity money to do cruel animal testing that is not only unnessesary, but for completely useless purposes. They inject alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and other substances into the brains of baby primates, kittans, puppies and many other types of animals, eventhough the dangers of these substances to human babies are well known. This is only the beginning of the pain this company is causing to baby animals - the pictures are shocking. For more information on Petas campaign against the March of Dimes, visit www.marchofcrimes.com/facts.html and find out why these studies can harm human babies as well.







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Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Ads and Pro

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INTRODUCTION


As the power of cyber technology as a marketing tool continues to grow, educational institutions are only beginning to realize the full potential of the major category (Lincoln, McCain and Bullock, 17). During the first months of 1, it was estimated that only 60 percent of American colleges and universities had developed home pages, and experts suggest that most of those schools were not deriving maximum benefit from their sites (Marklein, 1a). Despite their status as latecomers to the online revolution, many more institutions of higher education are expected to go online in the near future. As growth continues in this area, a number of studies examining the relationship between educational marketing and the web have been published (Drea and McNally, 17; Kittle and Ciba, 17; Lincoln, McCain and Bullock, 17).


For those schools that have adopted the cyber technology as a marketing tool, students are a primary audience for web contact. In fact, some observers argue that today’s students, many of them web savvy, are more careful and prepared shoppers when choosing a college or other post-secondary institution (Marklein, 1b). Students who want to study advertising are among this sophisticated consumer group, and their options are more numerous than ever before.


Since well before anyone heard the term Internet, advertising educators and practitioners have debated what kind of training best prepares creative students for a career in the field. As many of the most visible creative programs establish an online presence, we are gaining insight regarding the philosophies and practices that make each one unique. This paper summarizes the commentary on training advertising creators, examines online marketing of higher education and investigates how web sites are being used to position creative programs.


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LITERATURE REVIEW


How Should We Educate Advertising Creators?


There is no question that a good education is necessary for any student planning a career in advertising. However, there are lots of opinions on what constitutes a good education for young advertising creators. It is suggested that an advertising education can ground hopeful creators in the basics, spark them to extravagant inspiration and teach them how to sell themselves (Simko, 1, p. 17). For many years, aspiring art directors and copywriters entered the field with no formal training, or studied the discipline in a traditional college or university setting. Even though the teaching of advertising at the college level is a fairly recent development, some charge that higher education has failed or... been inconsequential in preparing students (Kendrick, Slayden and Broyles, 16, p. 64). Professionals and even some educators see a disconnection between the teaching of advertising creativity and the needs of industry. Perhaps in response to this lack of confidence, alternatives to college training have emerged in recent years. Most familiar are the portfolio-oriented programs like Portfolio Center and The Creative Circus. Although students can enroll immediately after high school, these non-degree programs are usually attended by college graduates as a supplement to an undergraduate education in advertising or another field of study. Proponents of the portfolio schools suggest that they complement, rather than threaten, traditional advertising curricula (Otnes, Spooner and Treise, 1, p. 14). Nevertheless, the advent of these programs is indicative of an effort to provide what many claim is missing in a traditional advertising education.


A primary selling point of these non-degree programs is that they offer highly-specialized, intensive training that makes their graduates job-ready. With so many graduates going after a comparatively small number of creative positions, students who can hit the ground running are what this environment demands (Simko, 1, p. 17). Programs like Portfolio Center are also known for using creative professionals as faculty, and industry publications agree that programs benefit greatly from having well-known stars on staff (Simko, 1, p. 18). But what exactly do these programs teach? Students who choose to study advertising take a collection of courses devoted exclusively to that topic. In most non-degree programs, students receive a decidedly thorough, and purposefully specific education. Industry has responded approvingly, hiring many portfolio program grads and elevating them to top creative posts. The students emerging from these programs are highly skilled, with better portfolios than many graduates of traditional advertising programs can or will produce (Simko, 1). But even the portfolio programs have their critics, some of whom suggest that these schools are pushing packaging over content, emphasizing executional skills at the expense of sound strategic thinking (Simko, 1, p. 18).


In recent years, research has examined the education of advertising creators in an effort to determine how best to train these students. Robbs (16) surveyed agency creative personnel nationwide and reports executional speed as one of the most valuable skills a student can learn. An earlier study suggests that technical and computer abilities are highly important (Otnes, Spooner and Treise, 1). Despite this evidence of industry’s appreciation for practical skills, studies are providing more overwhelming support for the idea that creative students need to become better thinkers (Kendrick, Slayden and Broyles, 16; Otnes, Spooner and Treise, 1; Robbs, 16). Concepting and strategic thinking are identified as highly important skills by new creators (those with less than two years experience on the job) in one study (Otnes, Spooner and Treise, 1). More experienced creative directors agree, complaining that many of the portfolios they review are heavy on execution and light on idea or concept and characterizing thinking skills as weak among many job candidates (Kendrick, Slayden and Broyles, 16, p. 7). Students should be encouraged to focus more closely on the conceptual and strategic areas, according to Robbs (16, p. ) and this sentiment is echoed in other research (Otnes, Oviatt and Treise, 15).


It seems clear that industry wants the best of both worlds -- students that are technically adept but also capable thinkers and strategists. Today, creative programs of all types are trying to deliver the whole package to employers. John Littlefield, chairman of the advertising department at the Art Center College of Design, acknowledges a shift in focus


Our tradition has been to turn out great art directors, but what we must now do is turn out well-rounded creative people. We’re putting more emphasis on marketing and even writing, but we have to be careful -- we can’t do this at the expense of art direction skills (Simko, 1, p. 17).


For universities, a history of teaching theory rather than thinking skills may demand a conceptual reframing of the role a university education can play in preparing students for entry-level creative positions, (Kendrick, Slayden and Broyles, 16, p. 7).


For universities, a history of teaching theory rather than thinking skills may demand a conceptual reframing of the role a university education can play in preparing students for entry-level creative positions, (Kendrick, Slayden and Broyles, 16, p. 7). Texas Creative, the world’s largest traditional creative training program in advertising, seems to understand the importance of being more responsive to industry demands. Housed at the University of Texas at Austin, Texas Creative attributes its status as an industry favorite to training smarter graduates by exposing them to course content outside the realm of advertising creativity (Cooper, 15, p. ). According to Advertising Age, the program at UT sticks to the profile of a cutting-edge ad department via continual revamping of teaching tactics in response to a contracting industry (Simko, 1, p. 17). I think what sets our program apart is that we graduate very well-rounded students, says Jack Reed, a lecturer in the Texas Creative program (Shuford, 16, p. 1). If well-rounded is synonymous with exposure to a wide variety of course content in addition to strong advertising training, industry leaders would say that programs like the one at UT are on the right track (Otnes, Oviatt and Treise, 15; Otnes, Spooner and Treise, 1).


Armed with the understanding that industry recruiters are looking for students with highly-developed technical/executional skills and great creative minds, every program claims to have the right formula for giving them what they want. Arguably, a program’s success or failure is measured by the viability of its graduates. But all of these schools, both portfolio and traditional, engage in an ongoing competition to recruit new students and market their best and brightest to the profession. One way to gauge this competitive battle is through an analysis of the recruitment and positioning strategies they employ.


Online Recruitment and Positioning Higher Education Signs On


Some researchers examining higher education suggest that students provide most educational institutions with their reason for being (Kittle and Ciba, 17, p. 168). Given the important relationship between the student and the institution, schools must attract customers continually (Kittle and Ciba, 17, p. 168). As colleges and universities first began to establish home pages online, establishing long-term relationships with relevant publics was not a primary goal. Instead, recruitment and positioning were priority issues (Kittle and Ciba, 17). Some charge that a kind of conquest marketing effectively eclipsed relationship marketing, favoring the creation of more and more new customers (Kittle and Ciba, 17, p. 167). However, others claim that student recruitment is a form of relationship marketing, given that all marketing begins with an exchange between the consumer and the producer and the result of that exchange is a relationship (Kittle and Ciba, 17, p. 167).


Much of the recruitment activity that marked the earliest use of web technology by colleges and universities was a direct outgrowth of the positioning that was achieved using the same medium. In a higher education context, positioning describes the way one institution is distinguished from others along real dimensions in order to develop preference among certain market segments (Drea and McNally, 17, p. 10). This practice is a common one among schools taking advantage of online technology. Many use web sites to promote their own distinctive image and strength through positioning (Drea and McNally, 17, p. 10). Several studies have examined how higher education uses online technology as a positioning tool (Drea and McNally, 17; Kittle and Ciba, 17; Lincoln, McCain and Bullock, 17), and this paper supplements the research in this area while narrowing its focus to creative programs directed at advertising students.


How Online Technology Is Changing the Marketing of Higher Education


Despite the success some colleges and universities have had in using the web for recruitment and positioning, there is a collective realization that this new medium is changing the rules. Strategists understand that, with millions of teenagers jacked into the web, traditional print ‘viewbooks,’ college-fair booths and campus visits (other than virtual) could soon go the way of the inkwell (Gegax, 18, p. 7). Even though a significant percentage of schools in the U.S. have yet to go online, the home page is fast becoming part of a traditional marketing strategy (Kittle and Ciba, 17). However, most institutions are only beginning to realize the full marketing potential offered by the Internet (Lincoln, McCain and Bullock, 17, p. 161).


There have also been pitfalls associated with the adoption of online technology for campus marketing purposes. One of them is functionality, given that the usefulness and quality of electronic marketing varies in how Internet capabilities are put to use, as well as how useful the application is to the intended audience (Lincoln, McCain and Bullock, 17, p. 158). In other words, many school web sites do not take full advantage of online capabilities and are not appropriate for the end users of the site. Another common problem is the misapplication of web technology as a marketing strategy, as observed in a 17 study by Lincoln, McCain and Bullock


Many of the institutions we observed have simply applied Internet technology to their current ‘product’ and have not started with a carefully laid out plan as to how to use the Internet to help them achieve very specific strategic or tactical objectives (p. 165).


Many admissions officials and registrars say that the real promise for online technology centers on marketing and recruitment (Marklein, 1a). Colleges, universities and trade/professional schools are actively leveraging their relationships with students by contacting them online more often and with more accurate targeting (Marklein, 1a).


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


(CSFs)


The Four Quadrants of the Online Positioning Strategy Model


The Online Positioning Strategy Model cross-compares (1) the educational focus of a school (advertising vs. creative) with () the educational philosophy suggested by site content (academic-based vs. industry-based). Both factors were determined for each site based on analysis of the informational cues presented in online content. The intersecting vertical and horizontal axes delineate four quadrants that characterize distinct positioning strategies.


The following definitions can be used to characterize the positioning strategies of the schools typed using the model.


Quadrant I Advertising Academic Strategy


The Advertising Academic Strategy represented by the upper left quadrant of the model describes schools that provide training to creative students with an advertising focus in a traditional academic setting. These programs are likely to stress the importance of a broad-based education as a support to creative ability applied to advertising. For example, the Texas Creative / University of Texas at Austin site’s Student Work section assert that successful advertising creators must also be well-rounded learners


Texas Creatives are successful because they graduate having taken a full load of advertising classes -- research, media, campaigns, and management -- in addition to their elective creative classes. Their books reflect this attention to strategic detail. The four-year degree offers the professional world people steeped in advertising, communication, and creative thought (Paragraph , 1).


All of the schools typed in Quadrant I are degree-granting institutions rather than diploma programs. The University of Texas at Austin is the only traditional university represented, however. Both the Academy of Art College and The Advertising Arts College only offer degrees in advertising or related creative areas.


Quadrant II Advertising Industry Strategy


The Advertising Industry Strategy represented by the upper right quadrant of the model describes schools that provide training to creative students with an advertising focus in an environment strongly influenced by industry personnel and practice. Programs typed in Quadrant II maintain strong ties to industry and focus more on technical and artistic skills in preparing students. The prevailing philosophy is that advertising students emerging from these programs should be ready to hit the ground running and require little or no on-the-job training. The Creative Circus web site reflects this viewpoint in some of its recruitment copy


The Creative Circus... where youll team every day with other equally enthusiastic, driven young creators. The same young creators who, a hectic twenty-four months or so later, will be your colleagues, rivals and friends at agencies and studios all over the country and the world. Our unique program just seems to attract the high achievers, apparently. Did somebody say... networking? And where youll develop not only your talent, but something so-called attitude cant ever substitute for your professionalism. The professionalism creative leaders have told us theyve come to expect from Circus graduates (Paragraphs 6-7, 1).


Programs typed in Quadrant II are primarily two-year trade schools with the exception of Virginia Commonwealth Universitys AdCenter. VCU AdCenters program, part of a private university, is supervised by a board of directors comprised of top industry creators. It is the only four-year degree program within this quadrant.


Quadrant III Creative Academic Strategy


The Creative Academic Strategy represented by the lower left quadrant of the model describes schools that provide training to creative students in advertising and other creative professions in a traditional academic setting. For these programs, teaching creative skills pertinent to advertising in a context with other subject matter (design, photography, and film, for example) informs the work of students across those disciplines and enhances their training. The Art Center College of Design site explains how creative students who intend to work in advertising are offered a broader perspective


Art Center has developed a liberal arts and sciences curriculum that helps students build knowledge of different disciplines and a capacity to synthesize information, think critically, and look at issues from different perspectives. Classes are intended to promote critical discourse in an open and engaged discussion of issues facing all of us as artists, designers, and citizens of the world (Paragraph 1, 1).


With the exception of the International Academy of Design, a trade school, all of the programs typed in Quadrant III offer bachelor’s and/or master’s degrees.


Quadrant IV Creative Industry Strategy


The Creative Industry Strategy represented by the lower right quadrant of the model describes schools that provide training to creative students in advertising and other creative professions in an environment strongly influenced by industry personnel and practice. Positioned as schools where students can be trained in a variety of creative fields by experienced professionals, programs in Quadrant IV are perhaps the most strongly focused on skill acquisition compared to those typed in other quadrants. The following quote from the School of Visual Concepts site underlines that program’s emphasis on teaching by industry practitioners


All of our instructors are working professionals. Actually, they are more than that. They are successful working professionals with significant clients, creative awards and credentials to their credit. Think about it. Who’s better equipped to tell you what it takes to succeed than people who are doing it right now? (Paragraph 1, 1).


Schools typed in Quadrant IV offer only associate degrees or diplomas and do not require or teach any courses outside the creative disciplines in which they specialize.


Overall Trends Identified In the Study


Not surprisingly, sites of degree-granting programs were more often classified as reflecting academic-based philosophies than diploma programs, which were generally classified as industry-based. Sites with an academic-based philosophy usually offered course descriptions, information on research facilities/resources and student organizations, and detailed faculty bios. Industry-based sites featured awards won by students, a listing of industry board members, highlights of speakers and guests to the program, and placement histories.


Although the sample size for this study was too small to offer findings of statistical significance, a majority of the sites evaluated demonstrated an advertising focus rather than a more general creative focus.


CONCLUSION


The debate over what type of creative program best prepares advertising students will persist, and schools will continue to position themselves in different ways to attract them. Online technology offers the educational institution a new means for carving a niche and distinguishing itself among competitors. The Online Positioning Strategy Model proposed by this study offers insight into the techniques that have emerged to date. Site planners for creative programs may find the model useful as a template for future designs.


The author acknowledges several limitations to the study. First, the qualitative evaluation of site content and the identification of the informational cues was a largely subjective process. The study could benefit from replication or extension by future researchers as the number of creative programs using online technology increases. Second, it is recognized that the small sample size limits the generalizability of results. Despite these conditions, the study does represent a useful contribution to a new area of commentary within advertising education.


Further research might examine the content of recruitment messages used by creative programs as a complement to this typology. Given the influence of positioning on the audiences targeted and messages used for recruitment, investigation in this area is a logical next step.


REFERENCES


Cooper, Ann (15), Head of the Class, AdWeek, (June 5), 7-.


Drea, John T. and Mary McNally (17), Using Perceptual Mapping to Identify Competitive Position In Higher Education An Empirical Study, 17 Symposium for the Marketing of Higher Education, Boston, MA, American Marketing Association, -16. http//www.marketingpower.com


Gegax, T. Trent (18), www.Apply-Here.com, Newsweek, 1/16 (October 1, 18), 7.


Kendrick, Alice, David Slayden, and Sheri J. Broyles (16), Real Worlds and Ivory Towers A Survey of Top Creative Directors, Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 51 (Summer), 6-74.


Kim, Juran (17), A Content Analysis of Internet and Magazine Advertising Informational Cues and Creative Strategies, University of Texas at Austin. http//edpsych.edb.utexas.edu/handbook/masters_req


Kittle, Bart and Diane Ciba (17), Relationship Marketing in Higher Education Via the World Wide Web An Analysis of Home Pages Examining Student Recruitment Strategies, 17 Symposium for the Marketing of Higher Education, Boston, MA, American Marketing Association, 166-175. http//www.marketingpower.com


Lincoln, Douglas J., Gary McCain and Gary Bullock (17), Using Internet Websites for the Marketing of Higher Education Where Are American Colleges and Universities?, 17 Symposium for the Marketing of Higher Education, Boston, MA, American Marketing Association, 158-165. http//www.marketingpower.com


Marklein, Mary Beth (1), Colleges, Students See Benefits of Online Admissions, http//www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/tech/ USA Today, January 6, 1, (November 17, 1).


____________ (1), Netting A More Complete College Picture, http//www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/tech/ USA Today, February 8, 1, (November 17, 1).


Otnes, Cele, Arlo A. Oviatt, and Deborah M. Treise (15), Views on Advertising Curricula from Experienced Creatives, Journalism Educator, 4 (Winter), 1-0.


____________, Erin Spooner, and Deborah M. Treise (1), Advertising Curriculum Ideas from the ‘New Creatives’, Journalism Educator, 48 (Autumn), -17.


Robbs, Brett (16), The Advertising Curriculum and the Needs of Creative Students, Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 50 (Winter), 5-4.


Shuford, Tracy (16), Madison Avenue South, Texas Alcalde, (May/June), 0-.


Simko, Alison (1), School’s In, Advertising Age, 6/ (June 1, 1), 17-0. http//www.adage.com


Stern, Bruce L. and Alan J. Resnik (11), Information Content in Television Advertising A Replication and Extension, Journal of Advertising Research, 1 (June-July), 6-47.


Taylor, Elizabeth G. and Deborah K. Morrison (14), Where Theory and Practice Intersect A Proposed Model for Analyzing Advertising Education, Proceedings of the 14 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Karen W. King, ed., Athens, GA, American Academy of Advertising, 64-70. http//www.masscomm.swt.edu/mcfaculty





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Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Pagan and Christian Influence (The SeaFarer)

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Christians and Pagans have nothing in common. Both beliefs have influenced English literature. The Pagans have a grim view of the world. On the contrary, the Christians have a more positive view of the world. First, the Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain bringing with them Pagan beliefs, which greatly influenced the literature. Later on, the Romans missionaries converted Britain to Christianity. Nevertheless, English literature now includes both Pagan and Christian influences. One example where you can find both Pagan and Christian influences is in the poem “The Seafarer.”


For example, “But there isn’t a man on earth so proud/….That he feels no fear as the sails unfurl/ Wondering what Fate has willed and will do,” is one of the many Pagan influences you can find in “The Seafarer.” Undoubtedly the Pagans fear death. They believe that once you’re dead there is no reward. The man in this poem doesn’t want to die and he thinks fate will determine what happens. Pagans believe that everything that happens is fate. Certainly these lines clearly came from the Pagans beliefs.


Moreover, an example of a Christian influence from the poem is “Death/ Can only bring you earthly praise/ And a song to celebrate a place/ With the angles, life eternally blessed/ In the hosts of Heaven,” Christians believe that death isn’t that bad compared to the Pagans. In fact they believe after death the person goes to heaven. In other words, they consider death is nice, which is exactly opposite of what the Pagans think. Ultimately, Christians don’t fear of death. Quite as evident, this poem has been influenced by Christians.


Nevertheless, in the poem, “The Seafarer,” there are both Pagan and Christian


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influences. Even though Christians and Pagans have nothing in common, you can still see the influences in the poem. In fact these lines from the poem are contrasting each other. In summary, you can see both Pagan and Christian beliefs in English literature.





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Monday, January 23, 2012

What is Communicative Language Teaching and is there any place for it in EFL teaching?

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In this essay, I will endeavor to define Communicative Language Teaching; when and why it became an important approach in foreign language teaching; discuss attitudes to it; define communicative activities; discuss learner-directed activities and the teacher’s role; give examples of communicative activities and discuss the place of Communicative Language Teaching in my own teaching situation.


Put simply, the aim of Communicative Language Teaching is to help students move beyond mastering the structures in a foreign language to the point where they can use them to communicate meaningfully in real life situations. This assumes that people who learn the English language want to be able to communicate socially on an everyday basis with native or very able English language speakers. They will also want to be able to live normal lives if they are visiting, or living in, countries where English is the primary language.


The ‘communicative’ movement has been influential in teaching foreign languages since the early 170s. It “grew out of dissatisfaction with the structuralism and situational methods of the 160s.” (Nunan, 10) Of course, the basic aim of any foreign language teaching has always been communicative ability, and this is widely used in, e.g. the audio-lingual method. However, the implications of this aim have been more thoroughly studied since the 170s. The communicative approach makes teachers and students consider language in terms of the communicative functions it performs in real situations, as well as its structures( vocabulary and grammar). The emphasis in language teaching comes off mastering individual structures (although these are very useful in the bigger picture) and moves onto providing students with opportunities to use the language themselves to get things done.


There are different ideas as to how Communicative Language Teaching operates. Initially it was seen as a methodology but now British and American proponents “see it as an approach (and not a method) that aims to (a) make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and (b) develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication.” (ELC Module 5, 000) According to Howatt (184), there are ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ versions of the communicative approach. He states that the ‘weak’ version is now more or less standard practice. (ELC Module 5, 000). This is possibly still true in 001. I believe this ‘weak’ version could reflect not only a philosophical belief, but also the teaching styles of some EFL teachers as well as the learning styles of some students. Drills and like activities leave the power in the teacher’ hands while communicative tasks give much more power and control to the student. On the other hand, there are students who much prefer an analytical or authoritative approach to learning. This is very true for many Chinese students who operate in a classroom situation where memorizing facts is the norm. It completely daunts many of them when they are asked to think for themselves in EFL classes, and they desperately make notes or ask analytical questions to assure themselves that what they are doing is correct. It takes time and patience to introduce a learner-centred curriculum in these situations, and it is extremely important that the students experience success at every stage.


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There are several criteria that can be used to determine whether or not activities are communicative ones. Littlewood (188) summarizes them under four headings-


1. “They provide whole-task practice” through various kinds of communicative activity with a real purpose, structured in order to suit the students’ level of ability. It is very important in a learner-centred classroom that the teacher discovers each student’s level of ability and builds on it.


. “They improve motivation” so that the students have the desire and feel the need to communicate with others.


. “They allow natural learning” which happens inside the students when the they are using language for communication.


4. “They can create a context which supports learning.” Positive personal relationships can develop among students and between the students and teacher in the classroom. In turn this creates an environment that supports learning.


Rod Ellis (ELC Module 5, 000) stresses that “content not form” is important as students must be focussed on what they are saying and not how they are saying it. He also talks about the importance of students being allowed the freedom to improvise (and this is what happens in real situations). He adds that there should be “no teacher intervention” either in the teacher correcting or evaluating (although he says some evaluation of the final product could take place when the activity is over) and that there should be “no materials control” so that the choice of language rests completely with the learners.


In true communicative activities, the teacher sets up a situation and then the students take responsibility for carrying it through to its conclusion. This learner-directed activity approach is very difficult for many learners. In most Hong Kong schools, students are instructed what to do and how to do it, therefore a teacher here would have to be very sensitive to the insecurity and anxiety that they would feel. In cases like this, it would be important to ease the students gradually into this new way of learning language, and gradually increase the type of activity as their confidence, understanding, and desire for independence grew. The teacher would need to ensure that the students understood exactly what was required of them, perhaps by modelling the activity first of all with some members of the class, and select activities that made small demands on their abilities to perform. The teacher also has an important but less dominant role to play in communicative activities. He/she is there to guide and encourage where necessary, and offer psychological support for the students. If the students find themselves unable to continue or complete a task, the teacher can offer advice, provide additional language, or settle arguments. It is also important that the teacher discourages the use of the mother tongue. This is an extremely valuable time for the teacher to assess the students’ performances so that future planning can take into account their successes and ‘failures’. While doing these things, it is very important that the teacher maintains an attitude of having no direct role in the activity.


There are two main types of communicative activities � functional communication activities and social interaction activities


Functional communication activities increase the ability to find language that will convey an intended meaning effectively in a specific situation. The students use language they know to get their meaning over even if it is not grammatically accurate. How successful students are can be measured according to whether they cope with the communicative demands of the immediate situation. Functional communication activities are about the teacher structuring situations so that students have to solve a problem or overcome an information gap. According to Littlewood (188) there are four main groups �


1. “Sharing information with restricted cooperation”, in which one learner possesses information that another learner must discover by asking questions, e.g. identifying pictures, discovering identical pairs, discovering sequences or locations, discovering missing information, features or secrets.


. “Sharing information with unrestricted cooperation”, in which learners use language for describing, suggesting, asking for clarification and helping each other - constructing like models by following instructions, discovering differences in almost identical pictures, following directions on identical maps are good examples of activities.


. “Sharing and processing information”, in which learners must not only share information but also discuss or evaluate it thus going beyond surface facts in order to analyse, explain and evaluate them. Learners be able to negotiate or disagree without giving offense at this level � reconstructing story-sequences and pooling information to solve a problem are examples of these activities.


4. “Processing information”, which dispenses with the need to share information as learners have access to all the facts they need. Almost any problem-solving situation can be used at this level and they can be based on everyday situations or some imaginary situation that all the group has to contribute to.


Social interaction activities increase the ability to take account of the social meaning as well as the functional meaning of different language forms. The students use language which is not only functionally correct but is also appropriate to the social situation they are in � they must pay greater attention to the social context in which the activity takes place. Simulation and role-playing are important techniques for creating situations and relationships within the confines of the classroom. How successful the students are here, is evaluated in terms not only of functional effectiveness but also in terms of the social acceptability of the forms that are used. It should be noted that the students themselves can determine the exact importance of the social factors during an activity. Littlewood (188) states that the classroom can be used as a social context and that the structure and skills that a foreign language student acquires during classroom interactions can be later transferred to other kinds of situations. He explains four approaches


1. “Using the foreign language for classroom management”, which involves lessons being introduced and ended, activities being organised and solving practical problems as they arise, all in the foreign language. This provides a rich source of communicative needs in the EFL classroom. It is important not to use the mother tongue at this time or the foreign language is devalued in the learners’ eyes.


. “Using the foreign language as a teaching medium” � there are many ways to achieve this. At my own school, where the teaching medium is English, the Chinese students who have no English whatsoever have two 1hr sessions each day with a specialist ESL teacher and the rest of their teaching, e.g. maths, art, PE, is conducted in English. Once the ESL teacher deems that they have enough of a grasp of English, they come back to the grade classroom fulltime where they struggle for a while. This system is working well although it has put much more strain on the classroom teachers as well. Last year we had two immersion classes, and this left those students with a sense of inferiority and a lack of social contact with their individual grades.


. “Conversation or discussion sessions” which perform an important function in helping communicative ability. These have to be structured carefully so that the teacher does not dominate, and simple things like the classroom layout being changed can introduce an informal aspect. It is important that the teacher provides material or instructions that help sustain these sessions without him/her taking over. Any part that the teachers does take should be on an equal basis as the learners.


4. “Basing dialogues and role-plays on school experience” has many uses. One, in particular, explores the problems that the learners have inside and outside the classroom


Simulation and role-playing create many more varied forms of interaction that EFL teachers can use. Again the teacher must know the students’ level of ability but these valuable forms of interaction can push the students to extend their abilities while keeping in mind that it is communication that is important not just the practice of language. The teacher can work through from performing memorized dialogues to improvisation. Debates are also fun and the students need to be able to use different strategies to achieve their aims here.


At all stages the teacher can be evaluating to see how future planning needs to be adapted for further lessons. One of the pluses of communicative language teaching is that the teacher is given many opportunities to sit back and evaluate students’ progress. Errors can be seen as part of evaluation, and students need to be encouraged to see that errors are natural and just mean that something else has to be tried.


I have found it a challenge to decide if communicative language teaching has a place in my teaching in Hong Kong. I am in a situation where I teach in English at an international school and use the Heinemann English 1 programme. I know this text does not suit my students’ needs but the text was decided upon when entry to the school required a much higher level of English and there were more native English speakers at the school. The case now is that I have one student whose reading age matches his chronological age and the rest of my year seven students’ R.A.s range from 10yrs down to 6 yrs. As a group they lack confidence in themselves and are painfully afraid of making errors in front of their peers. I have great difficulty in getting them to discuss or predict during class. Departing from the textbook is difficult as their parents are required to purchase the text, and Chinese parents tend to tick off each chapter as we “work” through it.


I asked very experienced EFL teachers at other schools in Hong Kong about communicative language activities, and they were firmly of the opinion that the whole approach does not work here. One of them mentioned the well established requirement of memorisation in Chinese schools. Another teacher said that during the 10s, the need for Chinese students to learn English to satisfy their entertainment needs had all but disappeared. English is now seen as a tool for business alone. It would be interesting to canvass more EFL teachers and find if these are common views. A third teacher was firmly of the opinion that it was “the only way to go” but required lots of introductory work.


I think in small ways I can introduce more of the activities I have learned about � the ‘weak’ option - but I am going to recommend that my school looks closely at our current school population and at the English textbooks we are using. I am sure the ESL teachers would support a change in textbooks even if they did not personally support the communicative language approach. A small beginning if it happens but I hope it would have a ripple effect.


I have always believed that meaning is uppermost in all aspects of language. This study has pushed me to see that language teaching must be about communicating in real social situations as well, and so I feel I have taken another step forward. While I recognise that the approach does not suit all teachers or students, I acknowledge that communicative language teaching gives students more opportunity to be responsible for their own learning, in a non-threatening environment. It places the teacher in the role of facilitator, writing their own learner-centred curriculum and ensuring that students experience success in all lessons. This makes for more work on the teacher’s part but ought to result in greater satisfaction on the part of both teacher and student.





English Language Centre. Module 5. ELC., 000.


Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman, 1.


Littlewood, W. Communicative Language Teaching. CUP, 188.


Nunan, D. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. CUP, 18.


Nunan, D. The Learner-Centred Curriculum. CUP, 10.





Please note that this sample paper on What is Communicative Language Teaching and is there any place for it in EFL teaching? is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on What is Communicative Language Teaching and is there any place for it in EFL teaching?, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on What is Communicative Language Teaching and is there any place for it in EFL teaching? will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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