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Saturday, April 7, 2012

The causes nof WWI

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The First World War had many causes; the historians probably have not


yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes


Cheap custom writing service can write essays on The causes nof WWI

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than what we know now. The spark of the Great War was the


assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of


Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian nationalist on the morning


of June 8, 114, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, the


capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Archduke was chosen as a


target because Serbians feared that after his ascension to the throne,


he would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the


Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black


Hand, had trained a small group of teenage operatives to infiltrate


Bosnia and carry out the assassination of the Archduke. It is unclear


how officially active the Serbian government was in the plot. However,


it was uncovered years later that the leader of the Black Hand was


also the head of Serbian military intelligence. In order to understand


the complexity of the causes of the war, it is very helpful to know


what was the opinion of the contemporaries about the causes of the


Great War. In the reprint of the article What Started the War, from


August 17, 115 issue of The Clock magazine published on the Internet


the author writes It is thought that this war that is been ongoing


for over a year, began with the assassination of the Archduke Francis


Ferdinand. However, many other reasons led to this war, some occurring


as far back the late 1800s. Nationalism, militarism, imperialism, and


the system of alliances were four main factors that pressed the great


powers towards this explosive war.


According to the article above, the author stresses that the


nationalism was one of the primary causes of the war. In the ninetieth


and twentieth centuries, especially after the French Revolution


nationalism was becoming a powerful force in Europe so people that had


the same culture, language wanted their own country. And that was the


problem for the government of Austria-Hungary that did not want to


lose their power and control. The Slavs in the southern part of the


empire were their main concern since they wanted to join up to Serbia.


Militarism is the second cause according to the article above, which


comes after the nationalism. To understand what the author means by


militarism one should be familiar with the situation of the world in


the beginning of the century, which was the result of both industrial


and democratic revolutions. Britain at that time was the largest


empire in the world, and it also had the largest navy. The navy was so


big and strong because the Britons needed to protect their empire and


maintain the sea routes between the different colonies. The Kaiser


William II of Germany hated and envied Britain for having a stronger


navy than his. He increased the German navy and built many warships.


Britain responded with building more ships and increasing its navy


too. This started a race for building more and better warships and it


created tension and competition between those two countries.


Imperialism and the system of alliances are the last two major causes


of the War. There was a quarrel between France and Germany about


controlling the colonies, and especially Morocco, which leads to a


greater conflict, the Great War. Europe at that time was divided into


two rival alliance systems Triple Entente that included Great


Britain, France, and Russia and the Triple Alliance, which included


the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and eventually the


Ottoman Turkish Empire.


Austria-Hungary must take a large proportion of any blame for the


outbreak of war in 114. The reason for Germanys part in the causes


involves Germanys blank Check policy. Before sending its ultimatum


to Serbia, Austria needed to be sure of the support of its ally,


Germany. Such support was forthcoming in the form of a telegram to the


Emperor Franz Joseph on 6 July 114. The telegram has become known to


history as the Blank Check. In order to balance the power, France


and Russia signed an alliance. Russia saw itself as the protector of


Slavs in the war, and immediately mobilized. When the war began, the


German decision that if they were going to have to fight Russia and


France, they would strike at France first according to its Schlieffen


Plan, and then turn West to Russia. Germans believed that Russia at


the time was unprepared for war, and that it will take a long time for


Russia to mobilize its army.


On July 8, 114 Austria declared war against Serbia. Russia responded


by partially mobilizing against Austria as a protector of Slavs,


and Germany insisted that Russia immediately demobilize. Russia


refused to do so, and on August 1 and declared war on Russia and


France. When war was declared in August people involved on all sides


felt that it would be a short war, and will be over by Christmas.


In order for Germany to accomplish its Schlieffen Plan, Germany


occupied Belgium. By August most of Belgium was under German


occupation and the Schlieffen Plan appeared to be going well, but it


brought Britain into the war because they had made a treaty with


Belgium before, and Schlieffen Plan involved the invasion of neutral


Belgium.


One of the problems during the Great War that military staffs and


thinking were far behind new weapons and logistics. In other words


military commanders like General Haig or Marshall Joffre were not


quite ready to the war with its modern weapons and new technologies


such as machine guns, bunkers and railroad systems that allowed to


bring troops quicker into defensive positions. This was the first war


in the human history where the weapons of defense were superior to


offensive. The First World War is also known as a war of attrition. In


order to protect themselves from modern weapons, men dug in along the


whole of the Western Front. They built networks of trenches that ran


500 miles. The First Battle of the Marne was the wars first major


turning point. German army has almost reached its objective Paris in


accordance with the Schlieffen Plan, but the Battle of the Marne


stopped the movement of Germans in the west. Unfortunately for the


Germans, the plan did not work as expected. The result was a partial


success, which failed in its ultimate goal of knocking the French army


out of the war early. The Battle of the Marne marked the end of the


Schlieffen Plan, the end of movement in the war and the start of


Trench Warfare. Eventually the trenches were stretching 5,000 miles,


from Switzerland to the North Sea. On the other hand, Germans were


much successful on the Eastern Front and had a series of quick


victories over Russia. Only in a single Battle of Tannenberg ,000


Russian prisoners were taken. After the failure of the German


offensive, both sides made various local attempts at achieving


breakthroughs. Most of these attempts failed due to the effects of


modern weapons.


The First World War was the first war to use poison gas as a military


weapon. Germans also had the first submarines and used them to


blockade Britain by sinking British ships. The sinking of Lusitania is


the famous example of the submarine warfare during the World War I.


The Lusitania had civilians on board, where 100 passengers were


American citizens. After sinking Lusitania a letter was sent to the


German Government by President Wilson to warn the German government


against killing Americans citizens.


In October 115 Ottoman Turkish Empire enters war on German side.


Turkish army began invasion of Russia and was very successful until


Great Britain attacked Turkey. British, French, Australian and New


Zealand were unsuccessful in invading Turkey. The action was confined


to the Dardanelles Strait and the tip of the Gallipoli Peninsula near


Istanbul. The same year, Italy had withdrawn from the Triple Alliances


when war started, and on the Eastern Front Russians were loosing their


lands and over 750,000 soldiers were taken as prisoners. By the end of


115 the whole society of Europe mobilized for war. This was to be the


worlds first Total War. Women were taking on the jobs, and most male


population was sent to war. The total war started when Germans used


their first gas attack


Gassing was the start of total war, because it broke all limits, the


social taboos, the gentlemans etiquette of other wars. Sometimes the


shot would miss the mark and kill innocent civilians. Before the


introduction of gas bombing, soldiers found it easier to overlook the


fact that they were fighting on opposite sides of the field, because


they had no personal motivation to fight.


In 116 there 1 British and French Divisions were fighting against


117 German Divisions. Two sides were facing each other across the no


mans land of mud, shell holes and barbed wires. Sometimes the


distance between two fighting powers was so close that on first


Christmas both sides were singing carols to each other. One can find a


good description of trenches by reading Erich Remarques novel All


Quite on the Western Front were he gives the reader some insight and


a look at a group of young German friends who are also fighting in


World War I. It covers the horror of this war through the eyes of a


young German solider, Paul Baumer. This book is not like other books


and stories that glorify wars. It tells the horrors of war in detail.


The story recalls the bloody details of bombing, gunfire, gas,


hand-to-hand combat, barbed wire, trench warfare and etc. Remarque


tells the story in the first person that makes the reader feel as if


he or she is one of the soldiers, that makes the novel even more


dramatic for the reader


We see men living with their skulls blown open; we see soldiers run


with their two feet cut off, they stagger on their splintered stumps


into the next shell-hole; a lance-corporal crawls a mile and a half on


his hands dragging his smashed knee after him; another goes to the


dressing station and over his clasped hands bulge his intestines; we


see men without mouths, without jaws, without faces …


The two biggest and horrifying battles of the World War I are the


Battle of Verdun and the Battle of the Somme. John Keegan, a military


historian in his interview tells about the Battle of Somme It was


the biggest barrage that had ever been. So, they were firing over


100,000 shells a day; relentless, relentless banging and booming of


this tremendous bombardment. So loud, you could hear it in England, if


the wind was in the right direction (60 or 70 miles away).


Over million soldiers were killed on both sides only in a single


battle of Somme during 116. The second biggest battle of Verdun was


fought at the cost of the French Army, and it is often compared to a


sausage machine, because 15,000 Frenchman died. The human kind had


never sees such battles throughout the whole history, with so many


losses, which was quite shockfull experience for the soldiers who


fought the First World War. This war resulted shortages in practically


everything, and rising prices. By the end of 116 America was still


not involved in the war.


Fateful year of 117 marked the beginning of the modern world. Several


important events took place in 117. First and the most important


event was the Russian Revolution and the rise of a Communist Power in


the World. The same year America enters the war against Germany. Two


great non-European leaders with two different ideas of what is good


for humanity emerge, and the European History becomes a World History.


Vladimir Ilich Lenin, who was hiding in Switzerland at that time, was


helped by some German agents to be able to go to Russia in a sealed


train. Germans helped Lenin, because they knew that if the Revolution


occurs, the war with Russia would eventually finish. As a matter of


fact Lenin and the Bolsheviks takes over the country on November 7,


117. Everything that was planned by Germans came true and Russians


made peace with Germany. The Western front was the only show in


town, and Germans moved all their power from Eastern to a Western


Front to break through the line of the enemy.


In March of 118 Russia signed a treaty in Brest-Litovsk which put a


formal end to the war and agreed to stop fighting. Russia was also


forced to give up some of its land to the enemy. The war that was


supposed to be over by Christmas seemed endless; however, in 118,


after great Franco-American Offensive Germany gave up, and became a


liberal Republic. It happened at 1100 am, on November 11, after 4


years and over 8 million military deaths on both sides. Germany agreed


to President Wilsons 14 points, issued in January 118 where Germany


agreed no to have secret treaties with other countries, most


importantly to end submarine warfare and to free the seas, to give up


their colonial claims and etc.


Germany also had to take the responsibility for the cause of the Great


War and accordingly pay reparations to Allies. By signing the treaty


Germany also agreed to disarm, and give up the colonies. The world war


one had tremendous consequences on the world. World War I killed


fewer victims than World War II, destroyed fewer buildings, and


uprooted millions instead of tens of millions, but in many ways it


left even deeper scars both on the mind and on the map of Europe. The


Old World never recovered from a shock. According to many


historians, and in particular Edmond Tailor the trench warfare was the


cruelest among all wars since the Ice Age. The reason why historians


think that way is because the people of the XIX and early XX century


were not ready to this kind of war. People were very optimistic about


the future with all the great inventions. The last twenty years of


the 1th Century, say 1880 to 100, those years were characterized by


an immense optimism. It was thought that public health, invention, the


telegraph, the telephone, ultimately the wireless and the radio, were


going to civilize human life in a way that it had never been civilized


before. And, then, all of a sudden, what happens is ghastly war breaks


out and spoils everything. The inventions that were supposed to


improve the standards of living for humanity in fact made the war more


tragic. The age that died in 114 was a brilliant one - so


extravagant in its intellectual and aesthetic endowments that we who


have come after can hardly believe in its reality. In Eric


Remarques novel All Quite on the Western Front one can clearly see


what war had done to the people, especially to the young generation


who fought it. The soldiers who fought in the Great War often lost


their interest in life. The only significance in the lives of the


soldiers was comradeship. Eric Remarque also mentions in his novel


what was the opinion of the soldiers about the progress, We are not


youth any longer. We dont want to take the world by storm. We are


fleeing. We fly from ourselves. From our life. … The first bomb, the


first explosion, burst in our hearts. We are cut off from activity,


from striving, from progress. We believe in such things no longer, we


believe in the war. That was the mentality of the soldier of the


Great War. Nothing in the world meant anything to a soldier, other


than the war. Remarque also shows in his novel how meaningless was


the war for the soldier. There is a place in the novel were Paul kills


a French soldier, and feels very guilty about it. It shows one more


time how artificial was the cause of the war. There was no real cause


why German would hate a Frenchmen and voiceovers. Erik Remarque shows


that when Paul talks to a dead French soldier where he says, Comrade,


to-day you to-morrow me. But if I come out of it, comrade, I will


fight against this, that has struck us both down; from you, taken


life-and from me-? Life also. Despite being alive, Paul considers


his life without any meaning after all the horrible experiences of the


war. All people who came out of the First World War were either


physically or psychologically wounded.


The impact of the First World War is still with us. In many respects


the events of modern Europe are a direct result of what happened in


114 -11. Had there be a World War I, of course have been no


Second… Adolph Hitler himself was a product of the First World War.


World War I also gave Lenin an opportunity to overthrow the government


in Russia and proclaim communism.








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