Pages

Saturday, April 7, 2012

Self Efficacy

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Self Efficacy. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Self Efficacy paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Self Efficacy, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Self Efficacy paper at affordable prices with LivePaperHelp.com!






Understanding adult learning techniques and motivational influences behind them


have become a fairly new and important area of study. When evaluating how adults learn


best we must look at what the driving forces are behind learning. This is especially true


Write my Essay on Self Efficacy for me

essay writing service



when comparing children’s and teen’s inspirations to those of adults. Adults have


different goals and needs for learning than adolescents. One unique aspect of adult


learning settings that is different than those of adolescents are most likely that grades are


not necessarily a motivating factor for learning. There are other critical elemtents that


serve as motivators for adults. According to Malcom Knowles these sources of


motivation include Social relationships, external expectations, social welfare, personal


advancement, escape/stimulation, and cognitive interest. These resources are very


important for self-directed learners to become competent enough to survive in adult


learning. Learning is a lifelong process and in the following paper I will discuss the


motivations, skills, and characteristics of an adult learner when grades do not serve as the


primary motivating factor.


Adult learning became widely promoted by Malcom Knowles in his years of study.


He was a theorist who focused on the importance of the individual in adult educational


settings. Knowles attributed several characteristics to adult learners Adults are


autonomous and self-directed, adults have life experiences and knowledge, adults are


goal-oriented, adults are relevancy-oriented, adults are practical, and adults need respect.


This shows that there may be a number of reasons why adults may want to learn, as long


as there is still a sense of choice that may be made. Learning is a process in which


individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, to diagnose their


learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and


implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes (Knowles 175).


Compared to children and teens, adults also cope with many more barriers that


must be balanced in order for learning to take place. Some of the barriers include lack of


time, money, confidence or interest, lack of information about opportunities to learn, and


also problems with child care. Some instructors have also found that many adults are not


able to engage in learning because they lack independence, confidence, or resources.


Furthermore, not all adults are capable of achieving the self-directed option, and even the


adults who do practice self-directed learning also engage in more formal educational


experiences such as teacher-directed courses(Brookfield185). I feel that it is no longer


necessary to define adult instruction as a process of transmitting what is known. It must


now be defined as a process of continuing investigation. And so the most important


investigation is how to learn the skills and motivations of adult learning when grades are


not important.


A very important skill of an adult learner is the desire to be in control of deciding


what to learn and how to learn it. This is where internal motivators come into play. The


types of motivators present in an adult learning setting may include the desire to maintain


old skills or learn new skills, learning skills necessary for a new job, or developing the


skills required for a promotion. Motivation plays a very significant role in the initiation of


effort toward learning and the achievement of goals. It also leads to responsible and


continuous learning. Hence, I feel it is essential for adult instuctors to create conditions


where students become increasingly motivated by actual interest and the desire to


construct personal meaning and shared understandings. Understanding these conditions is


what the exploration of adult learning is all about. Therefore, probably the best way for an


instructor to ensure that the adult learner is motivated is by enhancing and understanding


the reasons that an adult attempts to learn and helping decrease the barriers. Learning will


then become self-reinforcing and intrinsically motivating for the adult learner. Adult


learners will have a higher degree of motivation if they understand that the learning goals


will meet their needs and are achievable. In adult learning, attention is primarily focused


on motivational factors, but there are other crucial factors that are just as important.


Self- monitoring is another important skill related to adult learning.


Self-monitoring refers to an awareness of and a concern about one’s thinking.


Self-monitoring is the process whereby the learner takes responsibility for the creation of


personal meaning. This may mean adding to and enriching existing knowledge or


modifying and developing new knowledge. Cognitive and metacognitive processes are


involved in self-monitoring. Metacognitive proficiency is associated with the ability to be


resourceful and think critically. Models of critical thinking not only help describe the


metacognitive processes associated with adult learning, but can be of great assistance in


assisting students to become responsible for their learning (Garrison, 1). Using


internal and external input to construct meaning and shape strategies enables us to


self-monitor learning. Self-monitoring is ultimately linked to our management of learning


tasks and activities.


Another interesting and important skill that arises during adult learning is


autonomy. Autonomy is a structure which makes learning more attainable to the learner.


Learning in adulthood means becoming more self-directed and autonomous. There are


three elements that characterize an autonomous learner independence, the ability to make


choices, and the capacity to articulate the norms and the limits of a learning


activity(Chene18). Chene (18), for example, defines the autonomy of the learner as


independence and the will to learn. However, she also notes that the learner must have an


awareness of the learning process, an understanding of what is conceived as competence


in a specific area of study, and the ability to make critical judgments. However, in


autonomy there is a relationship between the personal and situational variables that must


be present for a person to be autonomous in certain learning situations. Chene (18),


contends that self-direction is a situational attribute of learners, not a general trait of


adulthood. Therefore, adults vary in their desire, capacity, and readiness for control over


certain types of learning tasks.


The next characteristic that I feel is unique to adult learning is the concept of


self-efficacy. Self-efficacy theory says that all processes of psychological and behavioral


change operate through the alteration of the individual’s sense of personal mastery or


self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was originally defined as a rather specific type of expectancy


concerned with one’s beliefs in their ability to perform a specific behavior or set of


behaviors required to produce an outcome (Bandura, 177). The definition of


self-efficacy has been expanded, however, to refer to peoples beliefs about their


capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives(Bandura, 18) and their


beliefs in their capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of


action needed to exercise control over task demands, which in this case it would be the


demands of learning in a non-graded setting.


The apparent need to ¡° learn on one¡¯s own¡± has been a persistent theme in self-directed


learning. For this reason, it is not surprising to find that self-directed learning has its


genesis in independent and informal adult learning contexts (Tough 171). An important


turning point in conceptualizing the construct occurred with the recognition that it lacked


a cognitive perspective (Mezirow, 185). He said that a critical awareness of meaning and


self-knowledge is a key dimension to self-directedness.


Long (18) identified three dimensions of self-directed learning the sociological,


pedagogical, and psychological. He described that much of the discussion around


self-directed learning has focused on the sociological (independent task management) and


pedagogical (application in educational contexts) issues. He stated amazement at the fact


that the psychological (cognitive) dimension had been generally ignored, stating that the


¡°critical dimension in self-directed learning is not the sociological variable, nor is it the


pedagogical factor. The main distinction is the psychological variable¡± (Long, 18)


While the social context for learning has been and should remain an important factor, the


lack of a specific psychological or cognitive dimension has been somewhat ironic,


considering the humanistic origins of the concept. Rogers (16), for instance, used the


concept in terms of both a cognitive and affective perspective. For Rogers, self-direction


was mainly about taking responsibility for the internal cognitive and motivational aspects


of learning. The focus was on cognitive freedom and the ultimate goal was to get how to


learn.


The phrase ¡°self-directed learning¡± invokes both social and cognitive issues-that is,


issues of ¡°self-direction¡± and ¡°learning,¡± respectively. In adult education, however,


most of the focus has been on self-direction (i.e., self-management of learning tasks). As


such, the construct has been largely defined in terms of external control and facilitation,


rather than internal cognitive processing and learning. Long¡¯s position was that, without


the psychological or cognitive dimension, the focus is on teaching not learning. He argued


that ¡°Pedagogical procedures whether imposed by a teacher or freely chosen by the


learner remain pedagogical or ¡®teaching¡¯ activities. Hence we have other-teaching or


perhaps self-teaching but not self-learning¡±. This distinction between external control


and internal cognitive responsibility is the basis for the self-directed learning framework


and model presented here.


More recently, Brockett and Hiemstra (11) have proposed an interesting framework by


expanding the self-directed learning construct to include a personality disposition. Their


framework is based on the ¡°distinction between the process of self-directed learning and


the notion of self-direction as a personality construct¡±. The two dimensions in the


framework correspond to transactional or instructional methods and learner personality


characteristics.


The self-directed learning model described here includes three overlapping dimensions


self-management (task control), self-monitoring (congnitive responsibility), and motivation


(entering and task). While each dimensior is described separately, in practice, they are


intimately related. task management and external control, we begin with the more familiar


concept of self-management, that is, the transactional (collaborative) control of external


tasks and activities. This dimension encompasses the sociological and pedagogical issues


that Long (18) earlier identified.


Garrison more formally captured this multidimensional view of self0directed learning. He


suggested a comprehensive model of self-directed learning based on three core


components 1) self-management (control), ) motivation (entering and task), and )


self-monitoring (responsibility). According to Garrison, AE has traditionally focused on


the first component, the control of learning, and paid less attention to the learning


processes. He suggests that equal , including the motivation to engage in self-directed


learning and to complete self-directed learning tasks. His third component,


self-monitoring, is the cognitive learning processes as well as metacognitive skills a person


needs to engage in self-directed learning. Adult learning professionals need to pay


attention to all three components(Swanson 18, p17).


As a practical matter, the contingency model of self-directedness seems most appropriate


for facilitators of adult learning because it more closely matches the reality of most


learning situations. There are many factors that individuals weigh in choosing whether to


behave in a self-directed way at a particular point. These may include


? Learning style


? Previous experience with the subject matter


? Social orientation


? Efficiency


? Previous learning socialization


? Locus of control


A. Self - Management


Self-management is affected with task control issues. It emphasizes on the social and


behavioral implementation of learning intentions, that is, the external activities associated


with the learning process.


Self-management contains shaping the contextual conditions in the performance of


goal-directed actions. In an educational context, self-management does not inferior


students are independent and isolated learners. Facilitates provide the support, direction


and standards necessary for a fortunate educational outcome. Self-management of learning


in an educational context is properly a collaborative experience.


Educational self-management concerns the use of learning materials withi a context where


there is an chance for sustained communication. Self-management of learning in an


educational context must tale account of the opportunity to test and make sure of


understanding collaboratively. This is an important aspect of know edge development.


B. Self - Monitoring


Self-monitoring refers to cognitive and metacognitive processes monitoring the repertoire


of learning strategies as well as an awareness of and an ability to concern about our


thinking. Self-monitoring is the process whereby the learner takes responsibility for the


construction of personal meaning.


Self-monitoring is similar to responsibility to construct meaning. This may mean adding to


and enriching existing knowledge structures or modifying and developing new knowledge.


Internally, cognitive and metacognitive processes are involved with self-monitoring the


construction of meaning. Cognitive ability is a core variable in self-directed learning.


Bandura (186) suggests that there are three self-regulated learning processes


self-observation, self-judgement, and self-reaction.


Metacognitive proficiency is very much associated with the ability to be reflective and


think critically. Models of critical thinking not only help describe the metacognitive


processes associated with self-directed learning, but can be of great assistance in helping


students become metacognitively responsible for their learning (Garrison, 1).


To be aware of this internal and external input, and to use it to construct meaning and


shape strategies is to self-monitor learning cognitively and metacognitively.


Self-monitoring is intimately linked to the external management of learning tasks and


activities. An interesting and important issue arises with regard to


responsibility(self-monitoring) and control(self-management).


C. Motivation


Motivation plays a very significant role in the initiation and maintenance of effort toward


learning and the achievement of cognitive goals. To begin to understand the pervasive


influence of motivational factors, we need to distinguish between the process of deciding


to participate (entering motivation) and the effort required to stay on task and persistence


(task motivation). Entering motivation establishes commitment to a particular goal and


the intent to act. Task motivation is the tendency to focus on and persist in learning


activities and goals.


It is hypothesized that entering motivation is largely determined by valence and


expectancy. Students will have a higher entering motivational state if they understand that


learning goals will meet their needs and are achievable. In a learning context, valence


reverberate the attraction to particular learning goals. The factors that determine valences


are personal needs (values) and affective states (preferences). Personal need reflects the


importance or worth of particular learning goals. Needs and values reflect the reasons for


persisting in a learning task. Closely associated with needs are affective states. This set of


consists of attitudes toward self (e.g., self-esteem), task (e.g., anxiety), and goal


preference.


Expectancy in a learning context refers to the belief that a desired outcome can be


achieved. This factor made up of personal and contextual characteristics that influence


goal achievement. Personal characteristics (competency) reveberate the perceived skills,


ability and knowledge of the individual while assessing goals. Perceptions of ability or


self-efficacy influence the decision to participate as well as the choice of goals and learning


environments. Contextual characteristics (contingency) reflect perceived institutional


resources or barriers as well as ideological and socioeconomic constraints. Together,


competency and contingency assessments represent the mediating construct of


¡°anticipated control.¡± Anticipated control is an essential perception when assessing


expectancy of success and making decisions regarding goal-directed behavior.


Entwistle (181) states that ¡°interest and intrinsic motivation are likely to foster a deep


approach, and an active search for personal meaning¡±. Intrinsic motivation leads to


responsible and continuous learning. If these are the worthy aims of education, it is


necessary that we create conditions where students become increasing motivated by


authentic interest and desire to construct personal meaning and shared understanding.


Understanding these conditions is, in essence, what the exploration of self-directed


learning is about. Authentic self-directed learning becomes self-reinforcing and


intrinsically motivation.


Motivation and responsibility are reciprocally connected and both are facilitated by


collaborative control of the educational transaction. Issues of motivation responsibility


and control are central to comprehensive concept of self-directed learning.


Self-regulated learning emerged from research on self-efficacy (perceived proficiency) and


motivation. The current emphasis of self-regulated learning on cognitive and motivation


strategies (Winne, 15) makes it a potential resource for the development of the


psychological dimensions of self-directed learning. Furthermore, it has been argued that


self-regulation has a beneficial effect on academic outcomes (Winne, 15;Zimmerman &


Bandura, 14).


In conclusion, self-direction is seen as a necessary process for achieving worthwhile and


meaningful educational outcomes. Self-direction is seen as essential if students are to


achieve Dewey¡¯s (116) ultimate educational goal of becoming continuous learners and


possessing the capacity for further educational growth.





Motivation


(Entering / Task)











Self-Monitoring


(Responsibility)


Self-Management


(Control)











Self-directed Learning





Figure 1 Dimensions of Self - Directed Learning


. SELF - DIRECTED LEARNING AS A PERSONAL ATTRIBUTE


There has been less focus in the research literature on self-direction in learning as a


personal characteristic of the learner. The assumption underlying much of this work is


that learning in adulthood means becoming more self-directed and autonomous (Knowles,


180; Chene, 18). Kasworm (18b), for example, proposes that self-directed learning


¡°represents a qualitative evolvement of a person¡¯s sense of cognitive definition and


developmental readiness for ambiguous and nondefined actions¡±. And Chene (18)


offers three elements that characterize an autonomous or self-directed learner


independence, the ability to make choices, and the capacity to articulate the norms and the


limits of a learning activity.


Research into the nature of the self-directed learner asking who and what questions Are


these learners introverts or extroverts? What is their cognitive style? What personality


characteristics do they have in common? What level of education have they achieved?


Are they more autonomous than other learners? Basically researchers are trying to gain an


understanding of the typical learner¡¯s characteristics and style. Specifically they have


tried to link a number of different variables with being more or less self-directed in one¡¯s


learning.


The notion of readiness and the concept of autonomy have been studied and discussed


most often in the professional literature on self-directedness as a personal attribute. The


notion of readiness implies an internal state of psychological readiness to undertake


self-directed learning activities. Guglielmino (177) has provided the most widely used


operational definition of this idea. She states that people must possess eight factors to be


considered ready to pursue self-directed learning openness to learning, self-concept as an


effective learner, initiative and independence in learning, informed acceptance of


responsibility, love of learning, creativity, future orientation, and the ability to use basic


study and problem-solving skills. These factors undergird her Self-Directed Learning


Readiness Scale (SDLRS), designed to ascertain adult readiness for self-directed learning.


The relationship of autonomy and self-directedness in learning has been discussed


primarily at the conceptual level. Chene (18), for example, defines the autonomy of the


learner as independence and the will to learn. However, she also notes that the learner


must have an awareness of the learning process, an understanding of what is conceived as


competence in a specific area of study, and the ability to make critical judgments


¡°[Autonomy] is a structure which makes possible the appropriation of learning by the


learner¡±


Autonomy, however, is not necessarily context-free; there is a relationship between the


personal and situational variables that must come into play for a person to be autonomous


in certain learning situations. As Candy (187b) observes ¡°One does not ¡®become¡¯


autonomous in any final or absolute sense.¡± Confidence and commitment enter into each


learning situation. Pratt (188), in agreement with Candy, contends that self-direction is a


situational attribute of learners, not a general trait of adulthood. Therefore, adults vary


considerably in their desire, capacity, and readiness to exert control over instructional


functions and tasks.


To understand self-directedness in learning as a personal attribute, more in-depth study is


required. We need to isolate the variables that appear to assist a person to be more


self-directed in his or her learning-from seemingly simple demographic variables such as


age, socioeconomic status, and occupation to more complex concepts like autonomy, life


satisfaction, cognitive style, and motivation.


). SELF - EFFICACY


Understanding how people adapt and adjust to life¡¯s infinite challenges is, perhaps, the


most important problem for scientific psychology. Not surprisingly, most of the important


models of human learning, cognition, emotion, personality, and social interaction have


tried to account for the individual¡¯s capacity for adaptively responding to environmental


changes, often referred to as competence (e.g., Sternberg & Kolligan, 10; White, 15).


Self-efficacy theory is one of the more recent in a long tradition of personal competence or


efficacy theories and has generated more research in clinical, social, and personality


psychology in the past decade and a half than other such models and theories (Bandura,


177,18b,186). The crux of self-efficacy theory is that the initiation of and persistence


at behaviors, and courses of action are determined primarily by judgments and


expectations concerning behavioral skills and capabilities and the likelihood of being able


to successfully cope with environmental demands and challenges.


1. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY


Social cognitive theory is an approach to understanding human cognition, action,


motivation, and emotion that assumes that people are capable of self-regulation and that


they are active shapers of their environments rather than simply passive reactors to them.


There are essential ideas in social cognitive theory, which makes the belowing specific


assumptions.


(Brandura 16 describes)


1. People have powerful symbolizing capabilities that allow for creation of internal models


of experience, the development of innovative courses of action, the hypothetical testing of


such courses of action through the prediction of outcomes, and the communication of


complex ideas and experiences to others.


. Most behaviors are purposive or goal-directed and is guided by fore-thought


(anticipating, predicting, etc.). This capacity for intentional behavior is dependent on the


capacity for symbolizing.


. People are self-reflective and capable of analyzing and evaluating their own thoughts


and experiences. These metacognitive, self-reflective, activities set the stage for


self-control of thought and behavior.


4. People are capable of self-regulation by influencing direct control over their own


behavior and by selecting or altering environmental conditions that, in turn, influence their


behavior.


5. People learn vicariously by observing other people¡¯s behavior and its consequences.


6. The previously mentioned capacities for symbolization, self-reflection, self-regulation,


and vicarious learning are the result of the evolution of complex neurophysiological


mechanisms and structures.


7. Environmental events, inner personal factors (cognition, emotion, and biological


events), and behavior are mutually interaction influences. Their own behavior, which then


influences not only the environment but also cognitive, affective and biological states.


This principle of triadic reciprocal causation or triadic reciprocality is, perhaps, the most


important assumption of social cognitive theory. A complete understanding of human


behavior in any situation requires an understanding of all three sources of


influence-cognition, behavior, and environmental events.


Social cognitive theory views the three major alternative approaches to explaining


personality and behavior-psychodynamic theories, trait theories, and radical


behaviorism-as unable to account satisfactorily of the complexity and plasticity of human


behavior. Psychodynamic theories are difficult to test empirically, cannot account


adequately for the tremendous situational variation in individual behavior, are deficient in


predicting future behavior, and have not led to the development of efficient and effective


methods for changing psychosocial functioning. Trait theories do not have good


predictive utility and do not sufficiently consider the documented impact of situational


influences. Radical behaviorism makes assumptions about behavior that have been


disputed by empirical findings. For example, Research has demonstrated that


environmental events (antecedents and consequences) do not control behavior


automatically, that anticipated consequences predict behavior better than actual


consequences, that complex patterns of behavior can be learned through observation alone


in the absence of reinforcement, and that operant explanations alone cannot account for


the complexity of human learning and behavior. Because social cognitive theory assumes


that people process and use information in symbolic form, evaluate their own thoughts and


behaviors, predict and anticipate events and consequences, set goals and strive toward


them, and regulate their own behavior. It surpasses the previously mentioned approaches


in its ability to account for situational influences and differences, to explain the effects of


belief and expectancies, to predict behavior accurately, and to provide models and


strategies for effective behavior change.


. SELF - EFFICACY THEORY


Self-efficacy theory maintains that all processes of psychological and behavioral change


operate through the alteration of the individual¡¯s sense of personal mastery or


self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was originally defined as a rather


specific type of expectancy concerned with one¡¯s beliefs in one¡¯s ability to perform a


specific behavior or set of behaviors required to produce an outcome (Bandura, 177).


The definition of self-efficacy has been expanded, however, to refer to ¡°people¡¯s beliefs


about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives¡± (Bandura,


18) and their ¡°beliefs in their capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive


resources, and courses of action needed to exercise control over task demands.¡±


(Bandura, 10 P16).


A. GENERALITY AND SPECIFICITY OF SELF - EFFICACY BELIEFS


Self-efficacy is conceptualized and measured not as a personality trait, but, instead, is


defined and measured in the context of relatively specific behaviors in specific situations or


contexts. However, the level of specificity at which self-efficacy is measured will be


determined by the nature of the task and situation at hand, and by the nature of the task


and situation to which one wishes to generalize, or in which one wishes to predict


(Bandura, 1).


Although self-efficacy sometimes is used to refer to one¡¯s general sense of competence


and effectiveness (e.g., Smith, 18), the term is most useful when defined,


operationalized, and measured specific to a behavior or set of behaviors in a specific


context (e.g., Kaplan, Atkins, & Reinsch, 184; Manning & Wright, 18). General


self-efficacy scales have been developed (Sherer et al., 18; Tipton & Worthington,


184), but these scales have not resulted in much useful research on specific types of


behavior change. In addition, measuring self-efficacy expectancies for quitting smoking


will be more successful if we measure the smoker¡¯s expectations for being able to refrain


from smoking under specific situations (e.g., while at a party, after eating, when around


other smokers; DiClemente, 186). If one¡¯s sense of competence is high for an ability


one values, then this will contribute to high self-esteem (or low self-esteem if perceived


competence for the valued skill is low). Judgments of inefficacy in unvalued areas of


competence are unlikely to influence significantly self-concept and self-esteem.


B. DIMENSIONS OF SELF - EFFICACY


? Performance Experiences


Performance experiences, in particular, clear success or failure, are the most powerful


sources of self-efficacy information (Bandura, 177). Success at a task, behavior, or skill


strengthens self-efficacy expectancies for that task, behavior, or skill, whereas perceptions


of failure diminish self-efficacy expectancy.


? Vicarious Experiences


Vicarious experiences (observational learning, modeling, imitation) influence self-efficacy


expectancy when people observe the behavior of others, see what they are able to do, note


the consequences of their behavior, and then use this information to form expectancies


about their own behavior and its consequences. Vicarious experiences generally have


weaker effects on self-efficacy expectancy than do direct personal experiences (e.g.,


Bandura, Adams, & Beyer, 177).


? Imaginal Experiences


Social cognitive theory posits that people have tremendous capacity for symbolic cognitive


activity. People can generate beliefs about personal efficacy or inefficacy by imagining


themselves or others behaving effectively or ineffectively in future situations (Cervone,


18)


? Verbal Persuasion


Verbal persuasion (or social persuasion) is a less potent source of enduring change in


self-efficacy expectancy than performance experiences and vicarious experiences. The


potency of verbal persuasion as a source of self-efficacy expectancies should be influenced


by such factors as the expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness of the source, as


suggested by decades of research on verbal persuasion and attitude change (e.g., Petty &


Cacioppo, 181).


? Physiological States


Physiological states influence self-efficacy when people associate aversive physiological


arousal with poor behavioral performance, perceived incompetence, and perceived failure.


Thus, when persons become aware of unpleasant physiological arousal, they are more


likely to doubt their behavioral competence than if the physiological state were pleasant or


neutral.


? Emotional States


Emotions or moods can be additional sources of information about self0efficacy. People


are more likely to have self-efficacious beliefs about performance when their affect is


positive than when it is negative.


? Distal and Proximal Sources


Determinants of current self-efficacy beliefs may be either distal (past) or proximal


(current or immediate), and self-efficacy for a specific performance in a specific situation


measured at a specific time will be the result of the confluence of distal and proximal


information from all six sources. Just as proximal (immediate) consequences usually exert


greater control over behavior than distal (future) consequences, proximal (current)


information about self-efficacy is likely to have a more powerful immediate effect on


current self-efficacy than distal (past) information.


C. MEDIATING MECHANISMS


? Goal-Setting and Persistence


Self-efficacy beliefs influence people¡¯s choice of goals and goals directed activities,


expenditure of effort, and persistence in the face of challenge and obstacles (Bandura,


186; Locke & Latham, 10). In the face of difficulties, people with a weak sense of


personal efficacy develop doubts about their ability to accomplish the task at hand and


give up easily, whereas those with a strong sense of self-efficacy increase their efforts to


master a challenge when obstacles arise.


Through the monitoring of self and situation, people develop beliefs not only about their


current level of competence, but also beliefs (expectations) about rate of improvement in


competence.


? Cognition


Self-efficacy beliefs influence cognition in four ways. First, they influence the goals people


set for themselves. People with stronger self-efficacy beliefs for their performance set


higher goals and commit to goals more strongly than do people with weaker beliefs about


their abilities. Second, self-efficacy beliefs influence the plans or strategies people envision


for attaining these goals. Third, they influence the development of rules for predicting and


influencing events. Finally, self-efficacy for problem solving influences the efficiency and


effectiveness of problem solving. When faced with complex decision-making tasks,


people who believe strongly in their problem-solving abilities remain highly efficient and


highly effective problem-solving abilities remain highly efficient and highly effective


problem solvers and decision makers; those who doubt their abilities become erratic,


inefficient, and ineffective (e.g., Bandura & Jourden, 11; Bandura & Wood, 18).


? Affect


Self-efficacy beliefs are powerful determinants of affective or emotional responses to life


events, responses that can then influence cognition and action. Two domains of


self-efficacy are important in the realm of emotion. First, self-efficacy beliefs about


behavioral performance influence the type and intensity of affect. For example, low


self-efficacy beliefs for the prevention of aversive or harmful events lead to agitation or


anxiety (Bandura, 188). Lw self-efficacy beliefs for attaining highly desired goals or


outcomes lead to despondency or depression (Bandura, 186).


Second, self-efficacy for controlling the cognition that influence emotion can, in part,


determine emotional responses. People can become distressed about their apparent


inability to control or terminate disturbing thoughts and aversive cognitions, such as those


related to anxiety (Wegner, 18).


? Selection of Environments


People usually choose to enter situations in which they expect to perform successfully, and


avoid situations in which they anticipate that the demands placed on them will exceed their


abilities. Therefore, self-efficacy beliefs determine people¡¯s selections of situations and


activities, selections that greatly influence the continued development of these same beliefs


(e.g., Taylor & brown, 188).


D. OUTCOME EXPECTANCY


In self-efficacy theory, outcome expectancies are determined primarily by self-efficacy


expectancies. The outcomes people expect depend largely on how well they expect to


perform (Bandura, 186).


? Measurement Issues


Most studies that have examined both self-efficacy and outcome expectancy seem to


suggest that self-efficacy determines outcome expectancy and that outcome expectancy


does not add significant predictive utility beyond that offered by self-efficacy. Most of


these studies, however, have employed questionable measures of self-efficacy and


outcome expectancy.


Some research, however, indicates that when defined and measured carefully and in a


manner consistent with the conceptual distinction, self-efficacy expectancy and outcome


expectancy can each be important in the predicition of intentions and behavior.


? Response Expectancies, Self-Efficacy, and Intentions


Some researchers have raised questions about the relationships among self-efficacy,


outcome expectancy, and intentions in situations in which performing a behavior may lead


to involuntary aversive reactions such as fear, pain, or discomfort (Baker & Kirsch, 11).


Fear and pain expectancies are response expectancies- beliefs about one¡¯s own


nonvolitional reactions to events- which are a type of outcome expectancy (Kirsch,


185b). Thus, in situations that involve pain or fear, self-efficacy appears to be


determined partly by outcome expectancies (e.g., Baker & Kirsch, 11).


When people anticipate aversive outcomes (e.g., fear or pain) and are not willing to


engage in behavior that may produce those outcomes, their linguistic habit is to say that


they cannot perform the behavior (low self-efficacy) rather than they will not perform it.


Measures of willingness may simply be measures of intention (Baker & Kirsch, 11), as


employed in the theory of reasoned action (ajzen & Fishbein, 180). Therefore, in


situations in which fear or pain is anticipated, measures of perceived ability to perform the


behavior (self-efficacy) may be measures of intention to perform the behavior. This


intention is determined primarily by the strength of the person¡¯s pain or fear


expectancies. The mislabeling of intention and perceived ability may occur in other


important domains in which people are asked to engage in behaviors that may lead to


immediate discomfort, such as dieting, exercising, or violating personal norms (Baker &


Kirsch, 11). In each of these situations, ¡°self-efficacy¡±-what people say they can and


cannot do-may be determined largely by outcome expectancies-the anticipation of both


positive and aversive consequences (Baker & Kirsch, 11)


On the other hand, there is compelling evidence that avoidance behavior is determined by


self-efficacy, not by anticipated anxiety, and that anticipated anxiety is determined by


perceived self-efficacy (Bandura, 1).


E. OUTCOME VALUE


Recent research indicates that the notion of outcome value and its relationship to


satisfaction with outcomes is not as simple as once was believed. Hsee and Abelson


(11) proposed that actual value or position relation-how positive or negative an


outcome is rated on a satisfaction/dissatisfaction scale- is only one aspect of outcome


value and probably not the most important aspect. Hsee and Abelson (11) also


proposed that displacement relation and velocity relation are important determinants of


satisfaction with outcomes. Displacement relation is ¡°the directional distance (i.e.,


displacement) between the original (reference) outcome position and the position after a


change¡±. Satisfaction (dissatisfaction) depends on how much more (less) an outcome


departs from its original position in a positive direction. Velocity relation is the ¡°rate


(i.e., velocity) at which the outcome is changing¡±. Satisfaction is greater (less) when the


velocity is more (less) positive.


F. RELATED CONCEPTS OF MASTERY, CONTROL, AND COMPETENCE


An understanding and appreciation of self-efficacy theory and the research bearing on it


are enhanced by understanding the relationships between self-efficacy and other concepts


concerned with mastery and efficacy. Each of these can be viewed as social cognitive


concepts because each deals with people¡¯s thoughts, beliefs, motives, explanations, and


predictions about themselves and other people.


? Locus of Control


Locus of control of reinforcement (Rotter,10) is ¡°the degree to which persons expect


that a reinforcement or an outcome of their behavior is contingent on their own behavior


or personal characterisitics versus the degree to which persons expect that the


reinforcement of outcome is a function of chance, luck, or fate, is under the control of


powerful others, or is simply unpredictable¡± (Rotter, 10,p. 48). Thus, locus of


control is the general belief that one¡¯s behavior can have an impact on the environment


and that one is capable of controlling outcomes through one¡¯s own behavior. Although it


sounds similar to self-efficacy expectancy, locus of control is a generalized outcome


expectancy because it is concerned with the extent to which one believes one¡¯s behavior


controls outcomes, not confidence in one¡¯s ability to perform certain behaviors (Bandura,


186). Empirical evidence supports making this distinction between self-efficacy and


locus of control (Smith, 18; Taylor & Popma, 10).


? Probability of Success


McClelland (185) has proposed a general behavior theory that considers motivation,


incentive value, and probability of success to be the major determinants of


achievement-related behavior and affiliative acts. Probability of success ¡°is determined


not only by actual skill but also by the individual¡¯s beliefs about the efficacy of making a


response that may be somewhat independent of the individual¡¯s skill in making it


McClelland makes a distinction between beliefs about ¡°efficacy of effort in bringing about


a consequence through a particular response in a given situation¡± and ¡°generalized


confidence a person has that he or she can bring about outcomes through instrumental


activities of any kind¡±. A belief about ¡°efficacy of effort¡± seems similar to outcome


expectancy. Although, McClelland suggested that ¡°generalized confidence¡± is nearly the


same as a self-efficacy expectancy, His definition of generalized confidence is more


similar to Rotter¡¯s definition of locus of control, which is a kind of generalized outcome


expectancy, than to Bandura¡¯s definition of self-efficacy expectancy, which is a belief


about one¡¯s ability to perform behaviors or execute behavioral strategies.


? Causal Attributions and Explanatory Style


Theory and research on explanatory style or attributional style also are concerned with


beliefs about personal control and effectiveness (e.g., Peterson & Stunkard, 1). Most


of this work has been directed toward understanding the effect of explanations for


negative life events on perceived helplessness and depression (Brewin, 185, Robins,


188). Helplessness beliefs are closely related to self-efficacy beliefs and outcome


expectancies. Explanations or attributions, however, are beliefs about the causes of events


that have already occurred; self-efficacy and outcome expectancy are beliefs about


possible future events. The relationship between causal attributions or explanations and


self-efficacy and outcome expectancies is unclear, as are the ways attributions,


self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies interact to influence behavior and affect. For


example, some theories propose the attributions influence affect and behavior indirectly


via their influence on expectancies. Because self-efficacy is influenced by past success or


failure and observations of the behavior of others, attributions made about these actual and


vicarious experiences probably influence self-efficacy. In addition, self-efficacy may


mediate the relationship between attributions and performance (Forstering, 186).


Conversely, self-efficacy may influence attributions (e.g., Alden, 186; Bandura, 1). A


person with low self-efficacy for a performance domain may be more likely to attribute


failure in that domain to lack of ability than to lack of effort; the opposite pattern may hold


for those with high self-efficacy (Bandura, 1).


Schiaffino and Revenson (1) provided evidence that causal attributions and


self-efficacy interact in influencing depression and physical disability. Self-efficacy was


negatively related to depression for subjects who made internal, stable, global attributions


for RA flare-ups; however, self-efficacy had little relationship to depression for subjects


who made external, unstable, specific attributions for flare-ups. The pattern of


relationships was different for physical disability. For subjects who made internal, stable,


global attributions, self-efficacy was (surprisingly) positively related to disability; but, for


subjects who made external, unstable, specific attributions, self-efficacy and disability were


negatively related. Clearly, these relationships require further exploration.


4). SELF EFFICACY IN EDUCATION


Bandura (177) hypothesized that self-efficacy affects choice of activities, effort,


and persistence. Compared with students who doubt their learning capabilities, those with


high self-efficacy for accomplishing a task participate more readily, work harder, and


persist longer when they encounter difficulties.


Learners acquire information to appraise self-efficacy from their performance


accomplishments, vicarious (observational) experiences, forms of persuasion, and


physiological reactions. Students¡¯ own performances offer them reliable guides for


assessing their self-efficacy. Successes raise self-efficacy and failures lower it, but once a


strong sense of self-efficacy is developed, a failure may not have much impact (Bandura,


186).


Learners also acquire self-efficacy information from knowledge of others through


classroom social comparisons. Similar others offer the best basis for comparison. Students


who observe similar peers perform a task are apt to believe that they, too, are capable of


accomplishing it. Information acquired vicariously typically has a weaker effect on


self-efficacy than performance-based information; the former effect easily can be negated


by subsequent failures.


Students often receive persuasive information from teachers and parents that they


are capable of performing a task (e.g., ¡°You can do this¡±). Positive feedback enhances


self-efficacy, but this increase will be temporary if subsequent efforts turn out poorly.


Students also acquire efficacy information from physiological reactions (e.g., heart rate,


sweating). Symptoms signaling anxiety might be interpreted to mean that one lacks skills.


Information acquired from these sources does not automatically influence


self-efficacy; rather, it is cognitively appraised (Bandura, 186). In appraising efficacy,


learners weigh and combine their perceptions of their ability, the difficulty of the task, the


amount of effort expended, the amount of external assistance received, the number and


pattern of successes and failures, the perceived similarity to models, and persuader


credibility (Schunk, 18b).


Self-efficacy is not the only influence in educational settings. Achievement


behavior also depends on knowledge and skills, outcome expectations, and the perceived


value of outcomes (Schunk, 18b). high self-efficacy does not produce competent


performances when requisite knowledge and skills are lacking. Outcome expectations, or


beliefs concerning the probable outcomes of actions, are important because students strive


for positive outcomes. Perceived value of outcomes refers to how much learners desire


certain outcomes relative to others. Learners are motivated to act in ways that they believe


will result in outcomes they value.


Some school activities involve performance of previously learned skills, but much


time is spent acquiring new knowledge, skills, and strategies. At the start of a learning


activity, students differ in their self-efficacy for acquiring the new material as a result of


prior experiences and aptitudes (abilities, attitudes). As students work on the task,


personal factors (e.g., goal setting, information processing) and situational factors (e.g.,


rewards, teachers¡¯ feedback) provide cues that signal how well they are learning and


which they use to assess self-efficacy for further learning. Motivation is enhanced when


students perceive they are making progress. Higher motivation and self-efficacy promote


task engagement and skill acquisition (Schunk, 18a).


5). CONCLUDING COMMENTS


self-directed learning is consistent with a collaborative constructivist view of


learning that encourages students to approach learning in a deep and meaningful manner.


Meaningful learning outcomes would be very difficult to achieve if students were not


self-directed in their learning. Taking responsibility to construct personal meaning is the


essence of self-directed learning. To be a self-directed learner is to be a critical thinker.


More specifically, some research directions would be explore the theoretical


connections between self-direction and critical thinking; map the relationship between


responsibility(mentoring) and control(management) factors with regard to cognitive


development; articulate specific strategies associated with management and monitoring


issues; understand the influence of excessive workload, prescribed content and evaluation


on self-direction and critical thinking; and, study the effect of mediated learning networks


on self0direction and critical thinking. These are but a few possibilities among many


worthwhile research initiatives.


Another area of research that may prove valuable in understanding the cognitive


and motivational dimensions of self-directed learning is the literature on self-regulated


learning. Self-regulated learning has emerged over the last two decades as a result of


social learning research initiatives (Zimmerman, 18). In contrast to self-directed


learning, self-regulated learning emerged from research on self-efficacy (perceived


proficiency) and motivation. The current emphasis of self-regulated learning on cognitive


and motivation strategies (Winne, 15) makes it a potential resource for the development


of the psychological dimensions of self-directed learning. Furthermore, it has been argued


that self-regulation has a beneficial effect on academic outcomes.


Self-efficacy theory and research have contributed to the study of perceived


control and competence in at least three was. First, self-efficacy theory emphasizes the


distinction between three important variables concerned with personal control and


motivation-self-efficacy expectancy, outcome expectancy, and outcome value. Second,


self-efficacy theory emphasizes the measurement of these variables, especially


self-efficacy, with a greater degree of behavioral and situational specificity than has been


the case in other theories and bodies of research. Third, and most important, self-efficacy


theory provides a model to explain the origin and effects of perceptions of perceived


control and guidelines for changing human behavior and enhancing adjustment and


adaptation.


There are several important factors affecting self-efficacy; Goal setting Effects of


goal setting on self-efficacy have been obtained in several studies. Bandura and Schunk


(181) found that during subtraction instruction, providing children with a proximal goal


heightened self-efficacy, as well as motivation (rate of problem solving) and skill


acquisition, more than did giving them a distant goal or a general goal. Heightened


self-efficacy sustains motivation and promotes learning.


Information processing; Researchers have investigated how the demands of


cognitively processing academic material influences self-efficacy. Students who believe


they will experience great difficulty comprehending material are apt to have low


self-efficacy for learning it, whereas those who feel capable of handling the


information-processing demands should feel efficacious (Schunk, 18b). Higher


self-efficacy leads students to perform those activities that they believe will produce


learning. As students work on tasks, they derive information about how well they are


learning. The perception that they are comprehending material enhances self-efficacy and


motivation. Self-efficacy correlates positively with motivation to employ learning


strategies.


Models students acquire much self-efficacy information vicariously from peers and


teachers. Modeled displays can convey to observers that they are capable and can motivate


them to attempt the task; observed failures may lower students¡¯ self-efficacy and


dissuade them from working and peer models increased self-efficacy and skill better than


the teacher model or no model.


Feedback theory and research support the idea that feedback can affect


self-efficacy in important ways. Early success signal high learning ability; ability feedback


for early successes can enhance self-efficacy for learning. Effort feedback for early


successes should be credible with students who have to work hard to succeed. Each type


of feedback promoted self-efficacy, motivation, and skill better than no feedback.


Performance feedback, indicating that students are making progress in learning, should


raise self-efficacy, motivation, and achievement, especially when students cannot reliably


determine progress on their own. Schunk (18d) found that self-monitoring of


subtraction progress provided reliable performance feedback and promoted self-efficacy


and achievement.


Rewards rewards enhance self-efficacy when they are linked with students¡¯


accomplishments and convey to students that they have made progress in learning.


Rewards are informative and motivating. As students work on tasks, they learn which


actions result in positive outcomes (successes, teacher praise, high grades). Such


information guides future actions. Anticipation of desirable outcomes motivates students


to persist.


In conclusion, self-direction and self-efficacy are seen as a necessary process for


achieving worthwhile and meaningful educational outcomes. They are associated with


initiating learning goals, maintaining intention, and striving for quality outcomes.


Self-direction and Self-efficacy are seen as essential if students are to achieve


Dewey¡¯s ultimate educational goal of becoming continuous learners and possessing the


capacity for further educational growth. Learning interest and opportunities for control


promote self-direction and continued learning opportunities for self-directed learning, in


turn, enhance metacognitive awareness and create the conditions where students learn


how to learn. Even though adult learners who pursue self-directed learning, to the


something important for themselves in this changing society, if they do not have high


self-efficacy, they may not achieve their goals which they want to reach.


As for adult learners and educators, people would try to keep the great balance


between self-directedness and self-efficacy to achieve the highest goal by themselves.





Please note that this sample paper on Self Efficacy is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Self Efficacy, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Self Efficacy will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from LivePaperHelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



0 comments:

Post a Comment