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Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Sun' new Product Portfolio

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SUN MICROSYSTEMS

ISSUE What should be the Sun’s product portfolio (or product mix) given the current environmental conditions and competition?

SUGGESTION

Sun should change its image from server maker to solution provider including hardware, software and services and look for partners if something is missing in the value chain. Sun should focus on low-end servers and Linux. Sun should build application to manage the distributed processing and storage power. For Java build the good developer tools.

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1 SUN’S CURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO

1.1 COMPUTER SYSTEMS

High-end Servers UNIX® platform-based systems and incorporates UltraSPARC III microprocessor.

Mid-range Servers UltraSPARC III processor and Solaris Operating System.

Entry server systems & Blade Server Processor architecture (SPARC or x86), form factor (rackable or stand-alone systems) both Solaris and Linux operating systems.

Desktops and Workstations Product line includes 64-bit workstation.

1. SOFTWARE

Solaris Operating System (OS) The Solaris OS for SPARC and x86 platforms.

Java Platform

Java platform application environment allows development of application software independent of the underlying operating system or microprocessor. There are various version of Java Platform Standard, enterprise and Micro (for embedded systems such as PDA, phone etc.) editions.

Sun ONE Developer Platform

Provides a desktop-to-mainframe development and test environment for programming in C, C++ and Java programming languages.

N1™.

N1 software is to allow a data center to work like a single system by combining foundation resources (e.g. servers, storage and network devices) with virtualization, provisioning, policy and automation, and monitoring.

1. NETWORK STORAGE

High-end data storage systems provide a platform for direct attach storage or storage area network (SAN) solutions.

1.4 SERVICES

Sun services team provides support services (support for hardware and software) and Professional and Educational services.

SUN’S NET REVENUES FOR THREE YEARS (dollars in millions)

(Source www.sun.com sun’s annual report)

00 Change 00 Change 001Computer Systems products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,4 (15.6)% $ 7,6 (40.)% $1,8Network Storage products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,550 (8.7)% 1,67 (5.4)% ,66Products net revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7,7 (14.)% $ ,0 (.4)% $15,015Percentage of total net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.% (4.6) pts 7.8% (.5) pts 8.%Support services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,844 1.1% $ ,58 16.0 % $ ,188Professional and Educational services . . . . . . . . .77 (7.)% 865 (17.4)% 1,047Services net revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,641 7.0 % $ ,40 5. % $ ,5Percentage of total net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.8% 4.6 pts 7.% .5 pts 17.7%Total net revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$11,44 (8.5)% $1,46 (1.5)% $18,50

SUN AND ITS COMPETITORS REVENUE FOR 00 SECOND QTR

source (http//www.idc.com/getdoc.jhtml?containerId=pr00_08_8_154747)

(Revenues are in Millions)

Q 00 Market Q 00 Market Revenue Growth

Vendor Revenue Share Revenue Share 00/00



IBM $,1 7.7% $,8 0.4% 10.1%

Hewlett-Packard $,5 7.7% $,46 7.7% 0.6%

Sun Microsystems $1,76 16.6% $1,44 1.5% -18.6%

Dell $81 8.4% $80 .% .4%

Fujitsu Siemens $5 .4% $86 .7% 10.64%



Others $1,818 17.% $1,74 16.4% -4.15%



All Vendors $10,57 100.0% $10,616 100.0% 0.17%

4 SUN’S NEW SUGGESTED PRODUCT PORTFOLIO

As we can see Sun’s revenue is declining in almost every area except support services. There are various reasons why Sun’s revenue is declining. One is that overall external conditions such as downturn in overall market are not favorable. Merrill Lynch analyst Steven Milunovich urged Sun Microsystems’s CEO Scott McNealy and the board to cut costs and to focus on core computing (Analyst Urges Job Cuts, New Focus for Sun Micro, Wall Street, Oct. 00). Sun is now perceived as proprietary and expensive (Sun Micro Reports Earning, Troubles Seen Continuing, Wall street Journal, 16th Oct. 00). These all facts directed towards same thing that Sun’s current product portfolio is not according to market demands. Even in downturn Sun’s competitor’s are doing better than Sun, so there is strong requirement to analyze Sun’s current product portfolio including hardware, software and services area.

4.1 MORE AGGRESSIVE ON LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM

(http//www.enterprisenetworksandservers.com/monthly/art.php/8) According to IDC, a research firm, in contrast to the Windows and Linux server market, the Unix server market has declined about two fifths of its value, between 000 and 00. By 007, Unix share will drop to 7% and Linux share will increase to 5%. After 5 to 10 years Linux will outperform Unix and will take over Unix in most of the industry.

It is true that one of the Sun’s strengths is its reliable, secure and robust Solaris operating system. However, as we can see the IT world is shifting towards cheaper Linux operating systems. The world’s developer force and support of big companies like IBM, Oracle is behind Linux. So there will be a time in near future when Linux will out perform the Solaris or any other operating system. In my opinion, Sun is repeating the same mistake what IBM did in the mainframe era. IBM realized the mistake and turned it back to provide the integrated solution, however it missed the PC lead. IBM is no more solely mainframe company.

For IBM, PC and Unix were disruptive technologies. Disruptive innovation introduced by Clayton Christensen in his book, The Innovators Dilemma, provide an excellent way for understanding what the drivers are for change in the server market. According to Christensen, for incumbents, it is very hard to make a case for disruptive technologies because they are far less performing and less revenue making than revenue generating sustaining technologies. However, as soon as disruptive technology outperforms the sustaining technology, clients shift from the old to new technologies. For Unix, Linux is a disruptive innovation.

My suggestion here is that Sun should go and endorse the Linux even if it has Unix lead.

4. MORE FOCUS ON X86 BASED SERVER

SPARC based server are expensive for low end and mid range server. In the high-end server market or RISC based processor, competition was less intense. Competitors were Motorola, IBM, Fujitsu and Apple, not Intel and AMD. Now in 64-bit era, Intel launched new Itanium and Xeon MP processors and AMD launched Opteron microprocessor. Demand for x86 based low-end server and mid range server is increasing because of low cost and good performance. Sun relies on Texas Instruments to build its microprocessor ( www.sun.com annual report) and it outsources its servers to third party. So it is very hard for SUN to beat on price from Intel and AMD. Why sun has to design its own SPARC microprocessor when there are leaders in microprocessor area. Sun should leverage the strength of other companies like Intel.

4. MORE FOCUS ON BLADE SERVERS

(http//www.idc.com/getdoc.jhtml?containerId=pr00_0_11_150000) According to IDC, Server blades are on the cusp of tremendous growth in the market. While they represented only about % of the server unit shipments in Q0, IDC expects more than 7% of all new servers to ship worldwide by 007. Server blades suit the needs of customers with large data centers involving hundreds or thousands of servers. Typical examples would be financial services firms, Internet service providers, e-commerce sites, large banks, and telecommunications companies (http//www.serverbladesummit.com/industrynews/index.asp - hotmarket).

In coming time, computing needs would be more distributed than centralized in one location on big power server. Sun has made its image in telecom and Internet industry. Sun can leverage its customer base to give this solution. Sun should be more focused on providing low-end and mid-range blade servers by focusing on telecom and Internet niche market.

4.4 PARTNERSHIP FOR DESKTOP AND WORKSTATIONS

Sun needs to provide the full solution to its customers, which makes sense. However, why Sun needs to build these desktops/workstations? It can not compete anyway on the price with companies like DELL. In my opinion, Sun should not waste its energy in this, it should look out for strategic partnership with companies like Dell who are expert in this area.

4.5 SUN SHOULD BUILD JAVA TOOLS WHERE THE MONEY IS

(http//servlet.java.sun.com/help/legal_and_licensing) Most of the Java.sun.com products including JEE standard, runtime, enterprise and micro editions are free to download and redistribute with some value addition. Sun’s Java effort were to increase its server sale, however, it failed to do so. Java absorbed Sun’s revenue and helped competitors like IBM, HP in fight against Microsoft Monopoly. Sun and its partner will spend 500 millions on Java branding like Intel did with Intel inside campaign. McNealy (http//www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/business/606167.htm) insisted that Suns branding campaign would not lead to Sun making Java proprietary in any way. ``Java is like English, he said. ``You dont make money owning English. So why Sun is putting its money in Java standardization. Sun focus should be on building the easy to use Java tools like Microsoft visual studio. So that Java can be easily adopted by developers and generates revenue for SUN which really matters in end.

4.6 DATA STORAGE HARDWARE BY PARTNERSHIP

Sun is a new player in this industry. According to IDC this is again a growing industry as it provides the flexibility to increase and decrease the storage demands based upon the needs. EMC, IBM, Hitachi, and HPQ are the big players in this industry. Sun did a good job in this by making Hitachi a strategic alliance in this and selling its data storage because time to market is crucial thing instead of making its own hardware.

4.7 BE THE LEADER IN MANAGING DISTRIBUTED POWER AND STORAGE UNIT

Sun’s vision is “network is computer”. That is very good and broad vision according to me. Is Sun diligently focusing on it? I will take this vision as processing power and storage will be more distributed and winner will be the one who can provide hardware as well as great software to manage all these distributed devices virtually. The need that comes out of this is managing this distributed processing power. Ultimately building blades or storage devices would not going to be key differentiation, the key differentiation would be managing these products remotely and seamlessly. There are leaders in storage area, but nobody has full solution to manage these distributed processing power and devices. Sun could lead in this area by providing software to manage the distributed power and other network devices.

4.8 MORE FOCUS ON SERVICES AND CHANGE THE IMAGE TO SOLUTION PROVIDER FROM SERVER PROVIDER

Today’s the needs of services has increased and it will be more in the near future as the computing power is penetrating in the nonIT world. Non IT world is looking at the IT industry for solutions because there are so many solutions out there. IT companies can not just throw bits and pieces and say build yourself, these companies need help. Sun can help these customers and can make money on this. Currently Sun revenue for services is very low (7% of total revenue). Sun was providing the customer support not the real services to these companies. Sun has recently become more aggressive in this area by joining third party manufacturers. I have to say that Sun has to become more prominent in this area. HP and IBM are taking the customers by providing the full solutions to the customers. So if Sun left behind in this, it does not matter how good or bad Sun’s product portfolio is. Sun should define its niche market and should go after those customer to provide the complete solution.

References



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Monday, July 30, 2012

What is the Foreign Investment Review Board

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What is the Foreign Investment Review Board?

Foreign Investment Review Board examines proposals by foreign interests to undertake direct investment in Australia and makes recommendations to the Government on whether those proposals are suitable for approval under the Governments policy.

What is the purpose?

The main purposes of the Foreign Investment Review Board are

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- To examine proposals by foreign interests for investment in Australia and, against the background of the Governments foreign investment policy, to make recommendations to the Government on those proposals.

- To advice the Government on foreign investment matters generally.

- To promote an awareness and understanding, both in Australia and abroad, of the Governments foreign investment policy.

- To provide guidance, where necessary, to foreign investors so that their proposals may be in traditional values with the policy.

- To monitor and ensure compliance with foreign investment policy.

Who has ultimate discretion to accept or reject the FIRB’s recommendations?

The Foreign Investment Review Board purposes are not compulsory. Responsibility for the Governments foreign investment policy and for making decisions on proposals rests with the Treasurer. The Parliamentary Secretary makes many of the decisions requiring Ministerial consideration to the Treasurer.

The Foreign Investment Review Board is assisted by an Executive which is part of the Treasury and also has available to it advice from other Commonwealth and State Government departments and authorities.

What were the reasons for rejecting the Woodside Takeover?

I believe that the rejection of the Woodside Takeover was because; it does not deal with the national interest. It was also a political issue and was determined by Peter Costello after getting the influence of the Treasury of the Foreign Investment Review Board. If the go ahead of the Woodside issue it will lower the Australian Dollar that will drive the Dollar to an all time low. This rejection ensures that it was in the national interest of the Public.

Are there any industries or areas, which are off limits, or have limitations n foreign investment? Explain

The area’s that have off limits on foreign investment include -

- Educations

- Health

- Postal

- Water

These are off limits to overseas competition and the industries include -

- Media

- Banking

- Telecommunication

There are over countries have asked Australia to open these areas to them and to drop its foreign investment restrictions.



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babylon

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B A B Y L O N



Missionaries in vogue

Warriors for a new world,or just the latest fashion trends? Angelo Bozac’s new body of work attempts to cross the borders of typical art genres. Highly stylized and oddly aestethic, these almost life-size portraits could resemble an advertisement campaign for a chic line of jewelry at first glance. However, the persons wearing these exotic gold and silver accouterments definitely appear ready for something other then a hip fashion shoot.

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The chosen models have been painted with and pressed into a beautiful, copper-colored, muddy sand surprisingly similar to the color of the exhibition walls they’re hanging on. As with general portraiture, the face is the central focus, yet these faces stare back at the viewer, some glaring confrontationally, others proudly comfortable while stuck in their peculiar predicament. Glowing blue eyes practically burst through the two dimensional photographic plane. In fact, the works have more a painterly than photographic quality, and yet the models seem to rise off the surface as in classic reliefs. The works actually blend right into the walls, virtually camouflaged. However, these young men and women are still vibrantly mesmerizing in their finery and tribal-like gear, as if they might emerge at any moment, either ready for combat or a celebration.

The accompanying text at the exhibition speaks of inspiration from the lost heroes of Babylon, and although there are no weapons to be seen, there is still an air of danger about them. The work is obviously staged and despite the inconsistencies, these “bad” apostles do look as if from one tribe, as if the photographer strove to document a range of people on the verge of dying. These facts pose fiercely, yet they seem more concerned with maintaining a sense of order and justice than with hitting the battlefield. Old King Hammurabi would have been proud.



Marisa Ravalli

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Sunday, July 29, 2012

divorce

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DIVORCE Divorce rates in the United States have increased

dramatically in the past 5 years. Over 40 percent of the marriages among

young Americans will end in divorce. There is a lot of stress on all the

people involved. The man has to deal with, usually, not seeing his

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children, being alone, and the responsibility that is accompanied with

much of the legal process. The wife has to go through, maybe, entering

the work force for the first time. Children are often viewed as a back

burner issue but more often than none they are the center piece of

discussion. The children may begin feeling inadequate around their

friends and even in personal esteem. Feeling like it is their fault they

might get depressed or perhaps even rebellious. Regardless, divorce is an

activity that has become common place in todays family structure,

behavior, and morality. When two people meet and decide their love

is strong enough to carry them to the next level marriage is usually the

out come. Sometimes they decide to have children and sometimes they

dont, but when they do, it usually brings them closer together. All

parents have desires and hopes for their children. The way in which

parents achieve these ends can differ. Researchers do not agree on which

of the child-raising practices is best. But it is known that parents

provide role models for their children and that children rely on their

parents to teach them about the world. When a cultures values and

traditions undergo a rapid change it becomes difficult to decide which

attitudes and beliefs children should be taught. As one researcher has

stated, todays children are the first generation to be raised amid doubt

about the role prescriptions that have long gone unchallenged. This makes

their socialization especially difficult. Traditionally, socialization

was a process of raising the young to fill major roles in society when the

present incumbents vacated them. Yet today we do not know what type of

society our children will inherit, nor the roles for which they should be

prepared. (pp.4) Divorce along married couples is the most

well-documented and studied of the various ways relationships end.

According to Dworetzky Divorce rates in the United States have

increased dramatically in the past 5 years. According to current

assessments, over 40 percent of marriages among young Americans will end

in divorce, of the children born in the last ten years, almost 50 percent

will spend on an average of six years in a one- parent household. Nine

out of ten children will reside with their mothers. Between and

11million school-age children in the United States live in one-parent

families. About one-half of all divorces occur within the first seven

years of marriage with the first two to three years being an especially

vulnerable time period for divorce.(pp.47-6) The actual rate of divorce

may only represent a small amount of the problem. It is unknown how many

marriages end in non legal separations or how many married people stay

together in an empty, essentially dissolved, relationship for the

childrens sake. Of course, you do not have to be married to

experience a separation from a close relationship. If we add to the

official divorce rate the number of cohabitation couples who break up,

those who terminate their engagements to marry, break-up, steady dating

partner, or otherwise bow out of a relationship, several million couples

end intimate relationships each year.(pp.7-8,0) So, why do

people separate? Unmarried couples give us a number of reasons for

separation. In one study, researchers followed over 00 couples for a

three year period. During this period of time, more that one-half of

them ended the relationship. Seventy-eight percent of the men and women

listed boredom as the major reason for the separation.(Kolata pp, 4)

Apparently their romantic, passionate love had lost its power and there

was little else between them. Couples reported other differences in

several areas as caused for breaking up, including differences in

interests, hobbies, outside of the home activities, religion,

intelligence, and education. Almost two-sixth percent of the men and

women felt their sexual attitudes contributed to the separation.

Arguments about the frequency and types of sexual activities became major

barriers to living happily together.(pp.1-160) Among married

couples, similar issues are the reason why people have other problems. An

important wife should stay with in the traditional roles; that is, the

man earns a living and the wife stays home and takes care of the house.

There are conflicts when women begin having different desires. In

addition, when married women work, they are still expected to do more than

their fair share of household and childbearing chores. In effect, they

find themselves with two full time jobs.(pp. 8-104 Understanding)

Conflicts over roles is becoming an important factor in whether married

couples remain together. Separations present two challenges to our

ability to adjust. On one hand we must cope with the additional stress

that enters our lives. Studies of divorced men and women, for example,

provide a number of illustrations of the types of stress to which people

must adjust. Divorced men often find themselves working longer hours to

meet alimony payments. Since courts usually award the mother the custody

of children, men have longer periods of separation from them. Men also

find they dislike spending time alone. Many divorced women find

themselves in the working field for the first time making less money than

their husband did. Feeling helpless, lost, isolated and in a deep state

of depression they soon feel trapped by the children and the new

responsibility put on them. (pp.56-6 Psychology Today) The division to

divorce, the process of a divorce, and the postdivorce adjustment, are all

very stressful. It is not uncommon for the divorced partner to experience

hurt, resentment, and anger. To many people, divorce signifies failure in

an extremely important relationship. Lowwer self-esteem and feelings of

worthlessness and reduction are also common and stress producing results.

If children are involved, the stress can be even greater. Researchers now

believe that the most important influence on the emotional health of

children its the quality of their relationships within their family,

however that family might be structured, according to Robert Every, a

psychologist at the University of Virginia. For example, psychologists

used to think that boys needed their father within the home until at least

age of seven or eight. Now, they have discovered that the physical

presence of a father in the family are warm and supporting adults. This

shift occurred partly in recognition of the changing American family and

the changing demographics of divorce. The focus on relationships also

means that if divorced parents are angry and bitter, children will suffer

and they will suffer more if they are exposed more to the conflict through

joint custody.4(pp.0-46) Parent-child interactions may become

difficult, because the children of divorced families tend to exhibit more

inappropriate behavior that those in intact homes. Many children respond

with anger and fear to divorce. It is also common for children who do

feel guilty or in some way responsible for the divorce and to become

withdrawn and depressed. Most children can adapt to a divorce within a

couple of years, but, if the crisis is aggravated by additional stresses

or conflicts, serious developmental disruptions may result. Whether

children fare well may depend on their temperament, their past experience,

their age, and the support they receive from their parents .5(pp.

18-17) Such parental support is often lacking, because parents are so

wrapped up in their own problems during a divorce that their ability to

function as parents diminishes. Although children may fare well in

single-parent families, the chances increase that they will face problems.

There are many stresses associated with divorce. These include the

disruption of bedtimes and eating schedules, the effects of the parents

emotional state, and the lessening of adult contact. Also, the level of

income in the household usually decreases, and this may produce more

stress. Less income may require the parent to move, which in turn may

cause the child to behave to change of schools or move to a poorer

neighborhood with a higher rate of crime and delinquency.(pp. 170-174)

Divorce is happening every day to couples in the United States. The only

problem, is that the couple thinks they are the only ones going through it

when almost twenty-two percent of adult America is also. When parents get

divorced the children get divorced too. Children and adolescents face a

lot of stress during their lives, but divorce is very confusing, speaking

from personal experience. It can be too much stress to peoples lives

but they also present opportunities to form new relationships and to



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Thursday, July 26, 2012

Brief history of Ramayana

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A Very Brief Summary of the Ramayana

Dasharatha, King of Kosala, had no sons, so he performed fire sacrifice. A figure appeared in the fire and offered the king rice pudding to give each of his three wives. Kausalya, the oldest gave birth to Rama. Kaikeyi gave birth to Bharata, and Sumitra, gave birth to the twins, Laxman and Shatrugna.

Rama, well-liked by all, was to be the heir to the throne. In his youth, he went with a sage to kill rakshasas. Pleased with Rama, the sage taught him several mantras to invoke heavenly power in his weapon. At the Sita’s swayambara, it was proclaimed that he who was strong enough to lift an string a powerful bow would marry Sita. All failed, but Rama picked up the bow and snapped it in two trying to string it. Sita chose Rama as her husband.

Because of Jealousy and the bad advice of Manthara, Kaikeyi invoked a promise Dasharatha had once made to grant two wishes to his wife. She wished that her son, Bharata, become king and that Rama be exiled to the jungle for 14 years. Rama happily obliged, but the shock of the request ended up killing Dasharatha.

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Loyal to Rama, Laxman and Sita request to go with Rama to the jungle. When Bharata returns, he is angry at his mother for making such a request and refuses the throne. Kaikeyi sees the error of her ways. Bharata goes to Rama and asks that he forget the request, but Rama insists on carrying out his father’s word. Bharata returns to become temporary king, and Rama, Laxman and Sita begin life in the jungle.

Surpanakha, the sister of Ravana, lived in the jungle. One day, she saw Rama and became infatuated with him. Rama refused her advances and pointed her to Laxman, who also refused. Jealous, Surpanakha attacked Sita but was cut by Laxman in defense. She fled but brought her Asura brothers, Khara and Dhusana, to attack the them. Raman and Laxman killed them both. Frustrated, Surpanakha went to Lanka to consult with Ravana. Angered at seeing his sister mutilated, Ravana vowed revenge on Rama.

Ravana sent Maricha, a shape-shifter, in disguise as a deer to distract Rama. At Sita’s request, Rama went to bring the deer to Sita but didn’t return for a while. Worried, Sita sent Laxman to get Rama. Seeing that Sita was now alone, Ravana came to her in the form of an old beggar and tricked then abducted her and took her to Lanka.

Rama went Sugriva, king of the monkeys to ask them to look for Sita. Sugriva sent Hanuman to meet Rama and they started searching. Hanuman found an eagle in the South that had seen Ravana taking Sita and so the search party moved south, to Lanka. There, Hanuman grew in size and traversed 100 leagues of water as he jumped to Lanka. There he found Sita sitting in a grove of Ashoka trees.

Hanuman gives Sita the ring Rama had given him to prove his loyalty. Sita in turn gave her necklace to Hanuman. Ravana discovered the monkey god and his son, Inderjeet, captured him and demanded an explanation. Hanuman ordered Ravana to release Sita or else. Ravana, in turn set Hanuman’s tail on fire. Seeing this, Hanuman jumped all over Lanka and set the city ablaze with his tail.

The monkeys built a bridge to Lanka in 5 days and Rama’s army invaded the island. Many died on both sides. Ravana awoke his brother, Kumbhakarna, a sleeping behemoth to attack Rama. By using the mantras he had learned in youth, Rama emerged victorious.

Rama Killed Inderjeet, Ravana’s son, in battle and Ravana furiously went to attack Rama. The two fought until they were badly wounded. Ravana then threw a spear that hit Laxman’s chest, and left. The effects of the spear were such that Laxman would die without a particular medicine that grew in a tree in the Himalayas. Hanuman went to get this medicine but couldn’t identify the tree upon arrival. Thus, he lifted the entire mountain and brought it to Rama. The medicine was administered and Laxman recovered.

In their second battle, Rama killed Ravana, first cutting of each of his 10 heads in procession and then piercing his heart with enchanted arrows. Ravana was practically invincible because no human was strong enough to kill him and a boon protected him from any God. Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu who didn’t realize his divinity, was what ultimately did Ravana in. After the 14th year of exile, Rama returned to Ayodya to become king and ruled the happy Kingdom for many years.



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Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Brazil's current conditions

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Brazils Current Conditions

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

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. Current Conditions

GDP

Unemployment

Inflation

Exchange Rates

. Causes of Current Conditions

Debt

Stabilization and Reform

The Real Plan

4. The future

Projections

5. Conclusion

6. Bibliography

Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to analyze Brazils current economic conditions using statistical data, economic theory, and implemented government policies. We intend to discuss the current condition of Brazils economy, the causes for its current condition and future projections.

In the early 180s, Brazil had an emerging economy that looked strong and promising. However, looks can be deceiving and they were, for Brazil has failed to become economically strong.

Under a military regime in the 160s, Brazil had a built-in Real depreciation effect. This allowed Brazil to control inflation successfully. However, the oil shocks of the 170s led to a debt crises, extreme inflation and stagnation. In the wake of the debt crisis, many attempts made to stop inflation have failed. Most of the plans introduced new money and higher bouts of inflation followed each of them.

The current plan called, the Real Plan is struggling to accomplish what the other plans have failed to do�stop inflation. The Real Plan has, been a major success in decreasing inflation, and increasing economic activity. Although in 00 it failed to meet its targeted goals due to the confidence crisis and global risk aversion.

Current Conditions

GDP

Years GDP growth per capital Year GDP Annual Growth in %

165-7 5. 1 -0.

180- 0. 1 4.5

11-01 1.5 14 6.

000 .1 15 4.

001 0. 16 .5

001-05 1.6 17 .1

18 0.1

1 0.7

000 4.4

001 1.5

00 1.5

00 .8



Source International Monetary Fund



Unemployment

Year Unemployment Rate

1 5.68

1 5.1

14 5.06

15 4.66

16 5.4

17 5.66

18 7.60

1 6.0

000 7.0

001 6.0

00 7.10

Sources ILO. Panorama Laboral, IBGE/PME



Inflation

Years Inflation%

165-7 0.0

180- 4

1 114

1 48

14

15 .0

16 .1

17 4.

18 .5

1 8.4

000 7.0

001 6.8

00 8.4

00f 14.0

004f 5.5

Source International Monetary Fund



Exchange Rates

Year Exchange Rate

15 0.8440

16 0.71

17 1.040

18 1.117

1 1.0

000 1.810

001 1.410

00 .610

00 .00

All rates given for the month of Jan with US$ as the base

Source Federal Reserve Bank of New York



Causes of Current Conditions

Debt



Brazil was a major importer of oil when the oil shocks of the 170s took place. Domestic price increases for oil did not come at the same time as the external deficits caused by the higher prices. The lack of adjustment led Brazil to finance, using the debt market. After the first oil shock, Brazil might have had a chance to recover. However, when the second oil shock hit the damage became long term as Brazil went farther into debt. With full domestic indexation of wages and the exchange rate, oil price increases became wage increases. The wage increases turned into another and higher round of price inflation. This effect seen by using the wage-setting and price-setting curves, shows that the higher the markup, the lower the real wage will be, implied by price-setting. The graph below shows the lower price-setting line and the adjustment of the wage setting line.



P = Pe ( 1 + µ ) F ( 1 � Y / L , z )

Using the AS/AD model, we can follow the order of events. The increase in the price of oil, the markup, will lead firms to increase their prices, leading to an increase in the price level, P, at any level of output, Y. This causes the aggregate supply curve to shift up. The aggregate demand curve may shift as a result. The higher price of oil may lead firms to change investment plans. The increase in the price of oil also redistributes income from oil buyers to oil producers. Some of these effects will shift the aggregate demand curve to the right and some will shift it to the left. To simplify our example we have made the effects cancel each other out, thus the aggregate demand curve does not move. The graph below shows the moves up of the AS curve and it shows how the AD curve will adjust so that it returns to its natural state.



Stabilization and Reform

Plan after plan has been implemented to stop inflation. Unfortunately, another round of increasingly worse inflation has followed each plan. Most of the plans introduced new money and all of the plans had a name Cruzado, Cruzado II, Plan Bresser, Summer Plan, Collor Plan, Collor II, and finally the Real Plan, which is currently in place.

The Real Plan

Of all plans attempted, the most successful economic stabilization program is known as the Real Plan.

The Real Plan was established to attain

1. “Deindexation” of the economy through the use of the URV

. A gradual approach to the monetary reform;

. Appreciation of the currency.

The main concern of the plan is to deal with Brazil’s problem with high inflation. The Real Plan was put into use in 14. The plan was first to deal with factors causing a strong indexation, leading to ongoing inflation. The Real, was introduced as a new currency to discourage inflation. No use of price controls or price freezing, were needed The real plan used a combination of domestic, monetary anchors with external ones. The monetary anchors were influenced by higher interest rates and appreciated exchange rates.in conjunction with the Real Plan, which is in contrast with previous failed plans. A gradual depreciation of the currency was used to stimulate economic activity. At the launch of the real plan interest rates dropped to %! Interest rates have continued to stay below 10% since 16. This reduction of interest rates has expanded economic activity.

In 00 problems have occurred in the domestic financial market, public debt management, and a steep decrease in foreign credit flows. These problems are associated with the confidence crisis. This has negatively affected the inflation and the level of activity. The shock of the confidence crisis was felt much larger than expected by Brazil.

Graph Exchange rate depreciation and Inflation in 00(will have Ryan do)

To overcome this shock the goal of the monetary policy in 00 is to continue a path back to that of the previously given, Real Plan, but adjusting the targeted goals over a longer period of time..

To maintain this plan in the future, objectives for the Real Plan include inflation on a downward trend, long-term sustainable growth in output, investment, and employment and productivity, and a steady and substantial reduction of social imbalances.

The Future

Brady Bonds

To better Brazil’s current and future debt Brady bonds are being used. Brady bonds are a system of dept relief by swapping old loans for new loans. The Brady Plan was introduced in 18 by Nicholas Brady. The plan consisted of asking banks to forgive part of their loans to debtor countries in return for limited guarantees of repayment. These would be financed by the World Bank and the IMF. To partake in this, debtors would be required to participate in policies favoring private investment. Brazil’s Central Bank was involved in the Brady plan. In 001 they found $18. billion in outstanding bonds that would be eligible for the swap. These new loans would mature in 04.

IMF

In 18 Brazil was handed $41.5 billion as a life-preserver. They failed to use this money to the best of their advantage causing a confidence crisis. In August 00, Brazil was given $0 billion from the IMF to get them back on their feet and improve confidence in the markets. This is the last of the money the IMF said they would give Brazil until they can take control and stabilize themselves. To exercise future use of the IMF stabilization needs to occur in the areas of inconsistent currency management, accounting and reserve management, and poor debt management.

Projections

Conclusion

Bibliography



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DELL

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Dell Computer Company sells custom built computers directly to the customer wherever in the world. With the power of direct and Dells team of talented people, it provides customers with superb value; high-quality, relevant technology; customized systems; superior service and support. Dell will establish a new direction, create a new method and search for a new track to make the products and services that are easy to buy, use and recycle. Dell will become the best computer company in the world and people will regard Dell as their fist choice. Dell can help people to change their ways on work, study and communion with each other. Dells greatest source of optimism lies with customers and Dells dedication to these principles continues to benefit customers first.

External Audit or Assessment

External audit can approximately separate to 5 parts (1) Economic forces () Social, Cultural, Demographic, and Environmental forces () Political, Legal, and Governmental forces (4) Technological forces (5) Competitive forces. The changes of external audit will influence the variety of the products and the requirements of the consumers. If we can realize and utilize the external audit then we can catch the opportunity and make a success in the competitive market.

Now, aim at Dell Computer Company, we choose some primary forces, which can make great opportunity or crisis to Dell, as our focuses.

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1. THREAT

Since the American market occupied 70% of Dell¡¯s net revenue in 00, so we will focus on it to illuminate the effects of economic forces. Some examples are listed below

(1) US Economy Stays Lackluster In 00 Q1

¡°The US economy continued to struggle in the first quarter of the year. Real GDP grew at an annual rate of 1.6% in the first quarter, a minimal improvement from the sluggish 1.4% pace of the fourth quarter.¡± [1]

The US economy continues to disinflate. It is undermined in part by the uncertainty relating to the Iraqi war and the relationship between US and Euro. The purchasing power of the customers as a whole will drop. And also, for the individuals, people will reduce their consumption on the high-technical products. Some ones maybe delay their plans on buying a new computer or updating the old one, which means computer companies, will decrease their shipment. Other people who have to equip one will make their purchase plan more prudent. That is, they will give up extravagant accessories to save money. So, Dell, if he can provides custom build, high performance-price rate computers, he will become consumer¡¯s first choice. Then the disadvantageous factor, lackluster of the US economic, will change to an opportunity to Dell.

() US Employment Stays Weak

¡°Weakening confidence has also contributed to firms holding back on hiring. As a result, employment has declined in three of the last four months through March by an average of around 100,000 per month. ¡°[]

High unemployment-rate will change the consumer¡¯s method of purchasing. With the unemployment-rate raising, when people feel there are so many uncertainties in the future in their life, they will save money to avoid the risk and they wouldn¡¯t spend money especially on the high-technical consumable. This will strike the IT industry and Dell can not get away.

() War in Iraq and Its Aftermath

From the left fig [], we can predict that, like the Gulf War I, the US business confidence will comeback to a proper level quickly after the Iraq War.

The war with Iraq is not helping given it may ultimately add to instability in the Middle East but will inspire more mass terrorist acts. It wills likely act to ensure that we remain in a low return environment for shares for some time to come. The share markets remain cheap relative to other financial assets and the investor sentiment is still very negative. Along with this, Dell should establish a longtime stratagem to deal with the uncertain of the states of the global economic development.

(4) SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) Impact IT Supply Chain

The spread of SARS is already affecting professional sports and the airline and tourism industries and it could impact IT supply chain. ¡°At a minimum, the SARS epidemic will cause schedule slippages and disrupt the aggressive growth plans that global electronics companies have for the affected geographies.¡±[4] ¡°Theres a risk that Western tech brands that outsource to Taiwanese companies will gradually adjust their strategies and support contract manufacturers with plants elsewhere to avoid putting all of their eggs in one basket.¡±[5]

Many accessories and main parts are manufactured in P.R. China and other Asian countries. Because of SARS, the plants have to face the threat of stop production. To the computer companies, this accident will influence the shipment and the contracts. Besides the supply, they may also have the problems in marketing, for people are required to stay at home. Dell should increase his purchase channel to ensure his accessory¡¯s quantity and quality, then Dell will maintain his produce-and-sale¡¯s chain.

(5) Competitive Forces from HP & IBM

HP-Compaq and IBM are two of the mainly competitors to Dell in the computer market. Well know the competitors are very important to design Dell¡¯s stratagem.

¡°HP has done a terrific job in lowering costs and improving margins. It became the No. computer maker. HP competes against IBM in the market for profitable server- and mainframe-like computers and computer services, and against Dell in personal computers and low- to mid-range servers that use Intel microprocessors.¡±[6] Now, HP sharpens dual-brand PC focus. ¡°HP wants to use the two brands to go after two distinct segments of the market, with HP attacking the high-end and the Compaq brand designed to compete on price and on bang for the buck.¡±[7]

¡°Although our revenue from continuing operations of $81. billion was off percent from 001 and our earnings decreased 5 percent, to $5. billion, all of our core businesses¡ªfrom servers to storage systems, to middleware, to services-gained market share in 00. This is important. It means we will emerge in an even stronger position, relative to our competitors.¡±[8]

Now, HP and Compaq have well off finished their incorporate, new company has build a new stratagem for his development. IBM has changed his main-focus and stratagem on the service. Dell cannot reduce his attention on his competitors, on the contrary, he must find out his competitors¡¯ strong suits and shortages. Dell is well positioned to leverage its business model with 7 percent operating margins versus below breakeven for both (HPs) and (Compaqs) PC divisions. He has got the advantages on the market share and customer¡¯s satisfaction. It is Dell¡¯s predominance and he must keep it. But, for the services-gained market is a high-return field and it is just the shortage for Dell. So, Dell must expend his work field and can¡¯t be focus on the computer only and to get a new profit gained-point.



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Monday, July 23, 2012

Australian Culture in Fly Away Peter

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“Fly Away Peter” is a short novel written by David Malouf in 18, set in 114 in Queensland, Australia, where two young men, an Australian and an Englishman go to war and experience the horrors and misery of World War One. The book deals with various Australian cultures and identities which cover patriotism, war, and Australia-England relationships.

David Malouf brings his representation of patriotism in Australian culture to life in the early chapters of Fly Away Peter. His idea that Australia was a young but patriotic nation in 114, when the book was set, is seen when he introduces a minor character, a young girl in chapter 6, which in many ways, reflects the ordinary people within that society period. When she meets Jim in Brisbane in a shoe shop, she asks if Jim is going to join the army, and when Jim asks why, she passionately and patriotically says to Jim ‘If I was a man I’d want to be in it [War].’

At first, the strong patriotism of Australians seems to be shown in positive light in ‘Fly Away Peter’, however in depth it seems that Malouf tries to create a negative view. His representation of patriotism shows how it can influence a person’s life, and in this case it is the influence of Jim’s decision whether to join up to fight the war. The girl’s initial words, ‘I reckon you’ll be joining up’ is what plants ‘the seed of excitement’ in Jim. On page 6, “When he stepped out….. beginning of a stampede” this passage indicates that something is going to happen in Jim’s life. The patriotism that suddenly fills the streets of Brisbane affects Jim and persuades him to drop his passion for bird watching and go fight the war, which through the book the reader certainly knows will not suit his particular character. Malouf expresses negative concern and further enhances his view making references to the ‘slope’ and ‘stampede’ to indicate that Jim’s decision is not totally under his individual control.

Malouf makes an accurate representation of the sort of atmosphere surrounding 114-118, and through historical sources it can be confirmed that the nation was indeed proud, patriotic, and perhaps even too patriotic. Looking at the extract taken from the Museum of Victoria of a letter written by the Senior Mistress of Ballarat High School in 115, “Every Australian womans heart this week is filling with pride, with exultation, …… Boys, you have honoured our land…”, it is seen that the nation were so proud and joyous for those who went to represent Australia in the war. When ‘Fly Away Peter’ was published, 18, the world was in the middle of seeing the Iran-Iraq War (180-188) being played out over border disputes and religious and political differences. Not only this but Australia and the world had just been through the Second World War (17-145). Through his book, Malouf is able to show how patriotism of a nation could have so much influence over a person’s life, as to go to war and see the horrors and deaths caused by war. He is able to show a different perspective, a negative one, of the results of patriotism through the vivid imagery in his book, which intends to deter the people from entering another war at the time of the book publication.

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Leading on from patriotism, the book revolves around the theme of war. It takes the Anzac culture of battles, young boys, and diseases in trenches, and weaves it into a different perspective of Australian Anzac culture. Malouf makes a graphic retelling of the war scenes through the eyes of two young men, Jim Sadler and Ashley Crowther, creating his own Anzac ‘myth’.

Malouf’s recreation of new Anzac images reflects this aspect of Australian culture in a negative way. In the opening of chapter 1, the author already starts painting graphical images through his descriptive use of words. “The air, even at knee height, was deadly.. breathless .. his head numb with noise… scrambled… crawling, moving on their knees, squirming at corpse level” The extracts from the passages highlights the danger, grueling conditions, and harsh environments of war. The language used is able to give the reader the sense that the characters are caught in the middle of destruction and chaos. Malouf brings a morbid atmosphere in this chapter by using words such as ‘bellies burst, swollen, corpses, unburied etc’, which enhances the readers imagination with a sickening gut feeling. Obviously, in this chapter, it is realized that it certainly does not reflect the Anzac battles as heroic or glorious, but rather as filthy and dangerous.

This negative representation of Australian’s war culture is indeed accurate, because referring to statistics of the Gallipoli war, a total of 870 Australian soldiers lost their lives which include those who died in action, died of wounds, and those who died of disease. Malouf clearly depicts all these aspects in his negative view of our war culture, through the examples of soldiers blown apart on the battlefields, and the disturbing descriptions of the dirty trenches. Through his portrayal of our war culture, his message becomes clear even as the world moves into the 1st century. Malouf tries to say ‘no’ to war, ‘no’ to retaliation, ‘no’ to violence, and looking at the example of September 11th’s twin tower tragedy, his message in ‘Fly Away Peter’ tells us to not engage in another war to retaliate, as this would lead once again to countless casualties.

Throughout ‘Fly Away Peter’, there is an underlying cultural aspect that Malouf deals with, which is the relationships and ties between Australia and its mother country England. The bond between Australia and England is shown through the two protagonists, Jim Sadler and Ashley Crowther. Naïve and innocent Jim Sadler, is a stereotypical working class Australian youth, while Ashley Crowther is the Cambridge educated English gentlemen. Within the early chapters, Malouf already establishes the social class difference between the Jim and Ashley; Ashley is not only well educated, but shows he has an interest for the finer things in life in that he is a highly talented pianist and has an affection for waistcoats and watch chains.

It is possible to say that Malouf subtly accompanies negative connotation with the representation of the Australian-English ties through the two characters. Ashley Crowther is the wealthy land owner of the bird sanctuary, and employs Jim to work for him as a bird observer. This suggests slightly that an Australian is inferior to an Englishman. Furthermore, from the quote “They had always had in mind a picture they had brought from ‘home’ � page 11”, Ashley Crowther constantly refers England as ‘home’, and viewing Australia as a nation stemmed from England. And as a result other older Crowthers regard the Australian bush as alien, and presumably inferior to the English countryside.

Historically, Malouf’s portrayal of Australians being a lower class is accurately represented. Australians originally were English convicts that were sentenced and sent to Australia as labourers. This is where the idea that Australians are a lower working class presumably comes from. This stereotype Australian idea has been present for a long time, and is evident in the society when the book was published (18). From a British satirical magazine ‘Private Eye’, there are examples from the Barry McKenzie comic strip, which ran for years (16-18), lampooning the worst traits of an Aussie on the loose in Europe. This clearly shows how a lot of Europeans view Australians the way that is depicted subtly in ‘Fly Away Peter’. Another example which further shows the way society viewed Australians in 18, is in an extract from a book called ‘The Typical Australian’ where it classifies Australians as barbaric, loud-mouthed, ignorant, uncultured, and hopelessly provincial. Although Malouf represents Australians in this way, both Jim and Ashley are able to work together and create a strong friendship despite different classes, which has intentions to show society that no matter what backgrounds people come from, people can work together if they share the same passion, and in this book it is the passion for birds.

In conclusion, David Malouf creates a new perspective of Australia’s involvement in the war and relations with Europe, which is portrayed negatively. He presents the opinion that Australia should not ever take part in another war, and depicts of horrors and misery of the war as a deterrent.



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Sunday, July 22, 2012

Enemy of the people plot

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“An Enemy of the People”, a play written by Henrik Ibsen, is about a small town on the southern coast of Norway and how it perceives and accepts truth. The town is governed by Peter Stockmann and doctored by his younger brother, Thomas. The main conflict flares up between these two siblings and then spreads throughout the town as they both try to do best by the “community.” Dr. Thomas Stockmann is a public-minded doctor in a small town famous for its public baths. He discovers that the water supply for the baths is contaminated and has probably been the cause of some illness among the tourists who are the towns economic lifeblood. In his effort to clean up the water supply, Dr. Stockmann runs into political cowards, sold-out journalists, shortsighted armchair economists, and a benighted Citizenry. His own principled idealism exacerbates the conflict. The well-meaning doctor is publicly labeled an enemy of the people, and he and his family are all but driven out of the town he was trying to save. This is an early dramatization of something we know better a century later the difficulty of translating medical scientific knowledge into political action. Ibsens well-intentioned blustery doctor heroically fails. This is partly because the local democratic processes are quite cynical (powerful people prevent him from getting his information to the citizens). Dr. Stockmann also suffers from a professional blindness that keeps him from understanding how anyone could possibly disagree that his scientific truth (he uses the world frequently) requires rebuilding the towns waterworks. He is a classic case of virtue-based ethics sacrificing outcome for principle. This play addresses many social issues. It ties in family, truth, righteousness, community, and politics. It really demonstrates how one issue can have many “truths” to it and how different people, even within ones own family, can see the same thing in total different perspectives; and in doing that act out against one another in an attempt to prove that one’s own perspective is the “right” or only one. In human nature, we are not one to compromise. We see so many things as one way or another, right or wrong; rarely do we seek to find the common ground between the two. In this play, common ground is never found, and in the end leaves a family broken up and a society left to wonder. Dr. Thomas Stockmann refused to give in, and in doing so lost parts of his family, his career, even his property, but never the less remained true to himself. This characteristic is one of great strength in my opinion. There are fewer and fewer people in my mind today, that believe so passionately in what they do and say, that they are willing to risk everything for it. Dr. Stockmann’s character portrays extreme courage and independence. The playwright Arthur Miller adapted this play in the 150s for its strong minority rights message at a time when those in power were viewing many U.S. artists with liberal politics as enemies of the people. Miller keeps Dr. Stockmanns strong idealism and mistrust of the majority but shortens and softens his tirades in which pro-minority is hard to distinguish from arguments for genetic superiority.

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Thursday, July 19, 2012

Pest analysis

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Competitive Environment

In this section we will examine the competitive environment where we will be implementing our strategic plan. It is essential to take into account the external environment as it will enable us to identify potential opportunities and threats which may arise from the changing environment.

The Macroenvironment consists of a number of broader forces that affect not only the subject but also the other actors in the microenvironment. These can be grouped under economic, social, legal physical and technological forces. These shape the character of the opportunities and threats facing the subject yet are largely uncontrollable. (Jobber, 001)

The PEST analysis

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In general, the abbreviation PEST, sometimes reordered as STEP, is a description of a framework for the analysis of the macro-environmental factors. Each letter of the world PEST stands for something as shown in the following graph



Political Factors

To many companies, domestic political considerations are likely to be of prime concern. Decisions made by government affect our every day lives and can come in the form of policy or legislation. However as Billie is a celebrity not a company political factors play a less important role although that is not to say that political factors should be ignored when considering Billie’s competitive environment. Music and politics have always had an uneasy relationship with many music stars using their fame to voice their political opinions. At the moment in the aftermath of the war in Iraq there is a lot of anti-government sentiment among our target market particularly in the UK. This could create an opportunity for Billie to exploit by being outspoken on political issues like this. It is an opportunity for her to become a figurehead for certain political issues much the same way as Bob Geldof and Bono are.

Political factors can also have a negative effect - for example at this years MTV awards when Madonna kissed Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera in a provocative dance on stage it caused outrage among many American politicians. Some conservatives even went as far as to blame them for September 11th. They said that such antics could cause offense to Muslims who will retaliate by creating more terrorist atrocities. As you can imagine this created a lot of negative publicity for Madonna, Britney and Christina. Therefore it is very important to take into account and exploit the current political climate when implementing our strategic plan.

Economic Factors

All industries are affected by economical factors nationally and globally and the showbiz industry is no different. The climate of the economy dictates how consumers may behave within society. Whether an economy is in a boom, recession or recovery will also effect consumer confidence and behaviour. At this point in time our target market has more disposable income than any of their previous generations. This means that they can afford to buy more cds, magazines, concert tickets and merchandise - it is up to us to convince them to buy Billie’s items. Another positive factor is that the economy both nationally and internationally is staging a slow recovery. This will have a positive effect on consumer confidence and buyer behaviour.

Social Factors

Within society forces such as family, friends, media affect our attitude, interest and opinions. These forces shape who we are as people and the way we behave and what we ultimately purchase. The social issues which concern our target market include relationships, pregnancy, drugs, binge drinking, weight problems etc. Billie is ideally placed to become a role model for our target market because she has experienced many of these issues herself. She had many much publicised drinking binges, she collapsed in a nightclub supposedly because of a kidney problem, she had a string of relationships and got married to a much older man while still a teenager and had a well documented gain in weight. She has also lived in the media spotlight since she was just fifteen.

Technological Factors

Changes in technology is changing the way business operates. The Internet is having a profound impact on the marketing mix. The internet is hurting cd sales because of piracy so there is an opportunity there for artists to embrace new technology by allowing their music to be downloaded legally for a small fee from official websites. Our target market are the group who embraces new technology easily so it is important for Billie to be seen as a technophile. At all times she should be seen with the latest gadgets and newest model of mobile phone. This will create the impression that Billie is in touch with the values of her target market.

Overall Billie’s competitive environment is a challenging one but she is in a strong position to exploit the opportunities that exist within it.

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Tuesday, July 17, 2012

1984 As An AP Book

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George Orwell’s 184 is a true masterpiece; there are so many aspects of literature and human emotion that make Orwell’s novel a true classic. Orwell’s novel has so many different unique characteristics that separate it from other works. The sheer brilliance of human emotion and diction that makes the reader believe a government take over is possible; along with allowing him/her to have different perspectives on an event all contribute to 184’s compelling story and classic use of humanism.

Unlike other books designated as AP or “Masterpiece” 184 offers a very unique experience. 184 strays away from the true and tried formula of “my childhood was very traumatic, here is it”. In doing so it offers a much more interesting reading experience. 184 allows the reader to imagine a horrific future world in which the principle of Democracy or other free government has fallen, and totalitarianism has risen to dominate. Free speech is no more, free expression is history; and history has been modified to fit the wants of “The Party”. It’s different, which is exactly what works for 184, its uniqueness draws the reader into the novel after the first few pages. This is a much darker novel than is normally read in an AP level class and it’s a breath of fresh air. The darkness of the novel is another aspect of the novel that pulls the reader into the novel. It’s not so much the plot that captivates the readers as much as it is the tone and mood of the novel. A gloomy, dark novel is much more interesting and appealing to the mind than is a lengthy narrative.

Orwell’s writing style does much to compliment the dark, dreariness of the novel. The first characteristic of 184 that is apparent is the fact that the entire novel is in the past tense. From reading the novel one understands the dark tone of the novel and realizes that it is not going to end on a happy note. The narration by Winston is done extremely well by Orwell in that the voice of doom is easily heard through Orwell’s language. In addition to Orwell’s diction is the tone that is consistent throughout the novel; that of darkness, frustration, fear, and despair. The following quote is extremely powerful as it relates to despair and frustration; “And when memory failed and written records were falsified- when that happened, the claim of the party to have improved the conditions of human life had got to be accepted, because there did not exist, and never again could exist, any standard against which it could be tested.” This quote shows how the party is trying to weaken any and all memories of history before the revolution. The logic is, if no one remembers the times before the revolution, they have nothing to compare their current state of life to. The party has in turn, created a history in which they are the accepted and loved rulers. This state of mind leads directly to another quote from Orwell’s masterpiece; “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.”

184 has come and gone, but Orwell’s vision of what could have been is still as frightening as ever. The concept of government taking complete control over its citizens (or should they be called subjects?) is not as farfetched as it sounds. The novel itself tackles many aspects of humanism including psychological manipulation, and physical punishment. These are specific items that do not lose their power or significance over time, rather they become more powerful and influential. Orwell’s 184 is comparable to a fine wine; it just gets better with age.

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Sunday, July 15, 2012

Classification TEST

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Scope

This method describes the procedure for determining the relationship between the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates and fine grained soils for all construction except concrete construction.

Sample

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Obtain a sample from plant or other source as described in STP 105 or as otherwise directed.

Mix sample well and break up any clay lumps; especially in fine grained materials.

Use a quartering method or sample splitter to reduce sample to appropriate test size as shown in the table. Do not adjustment sample to the exact value.

Required Materials and Equipment



-Balance - sensitive to 0.1 g.

-Sieves - Canadian Metric Standard square mesh sieves of size as required for the type of gradation for the material being tested.

-Mechanical sieve shaker. -Containers - pans suitable for washing the sample.

-Drying apparatus - suitable pans and stove for drying the sample.

Procedure

1. Dry sample to constant weight at a temperature not exceeding 110o C and .weight to the nearest 0.1 gram.. Place sample in a container and sufficient water to cover it.

. Agitate the contents of the container sufficiently to separate all particles finer than the 71 µm sieve, from the coarse particles. Break clay lumps with the fingers.

4. Bring all fine material into suspension and pour the wash water over the 71 µm sieve to remove suspended clay and silt.

5. Slowly pour the wash water over the 71 µm sieve taking care to avoid spilling coarse particles on the wash sieve.

6. Repeat washings until the wash water are clean.

7. Return material retained on the 71 µm sieve to the washed sample.

8. Dry washed sample to constant weight at temperature not exceeding 110o C and weigh to nearest 0.1 g.

. Nest the sieves with the finest sieve above the bottom pan and the coarsest sieve at the top.

10. Place the dried sample on the top sieve, place the sieves in the mechanical sieve shaker and shake for five minutes.

11. Weigh the material in the pan below the 71 µm sieve and record as the weight passing this sieve. Add the material resting on the 71 µm sieve to the material on the balance pan and record the total as the weight passing the next larger sieve. Repeat the procedure until all the material from each larger sieve has been weighed.

Calculation

Record test data directly on Form which is arranged for detailed calculations.

Add weight of material washed through the 71 µm sieve to the weight passing each sieve before calculating percentages.

Finally the Classification

1. Passing # 00 sieve

. L.L=.8

. P.I=5.

Then The Soil is classified as



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Saturday, July 14, 2012

Karen Leary

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[Karen Leary (A), (B), (C)]

1. Describe and assess how Leary has taken charge of the Elmville office.

Leary had a high motivation herself and she set goals for her branch performance at high level as well. Her management style could be described as aggressive, kept herself informed by her FCs continually, putting importance to training/ coaching/ counseling, making quick decisions and pushing the employees to work at their “best”. Since she took charge at the office, Leary never hesitated to change whatever she saw hindered growth, the prevailing culture, or even persons who had been working with the branch for over 6 years but showing only average performance.

I would say that she’d been acting very effective, although that caused some people grumbling, it suited the company’s current situation, its strategy (more customer-oriented), and a dynamic nature of industry very well. The most important thing was that she considered the customers first, a very critical factor in consultant business, and also her staff’s self-improvement. She might have “monitored” her staff too closely sometimes, but she also seemed to gradually empowered them when she saw they were experienced enough. Overall, that resulted in a 0% increasing in business during her first year.

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. What is your evaluation of Chungs performance?

Chung’s technical performance was initially impressive. He passed all test with high scores, appropriately and very good at establishing contacts with top Merrill people Leary introduced them to him, and could bring in a very big account within a short period. However, it was hinted from the start that he wasn’t very good at working in team. His cooperation to others was low and later on he seemed to act suspiciously, keeping the account and customer contact all to himself. He made some investment decisions on his own regardless of the company’s suggestions and hadn’t shown any attempt to bring in more accounts to the branch. Despite his promising start, I would give him rather low scores for his performance so far.

. If you were Leary, how would you respond to Chungs request? What factors would you consider? What actions would you take to improve Chungs performance, as well as your working relationship with him?

Since I agree with Leary’s decision to terminate Chung, I would do the same if I were her. The first factor I would consider was that whether his past actions gave the first priority to the customer or company’s long-term benefits or not. Then I would assess his performance against the organization norms, how well he interacted with the company and his peers, and how much it would affect the branch’s teamwork and other employees’ morals if the decision was to be made. In order to improve his performance or working relationship with him, the only way to do so was via communication, which Leary had been doing. She recognized his success bringing in the big account and stated clearly what strategies/ norms the company was adopted, but those had no effect to his growing ego and temper. So, it would cost the firm more to accept his request and risk creating inequality comparing to benefits he had done to the organization so far.

4. What are the particular challenges and dilemmas in managing subordinates who have different cultural backgrounds and working styles from yours? Suggest ways to resolve these challenges and dilemmas.

Like in the prior question, the only way to resolve such dilemmas was via communication. The major challenges were about the individual’s perception and ability to adapt to the environment. In this case, Chung’s ego was a bit over the edge and his demanding request, his threat to resign was a harsh way of negotiation. These actions of his might work on some managers who have more compromising style than Leary’s, so another difficulty to manage this issue is how much aggressive/ absolute a manager should be? This would depend on the situations at hand, but the company’s long-term benefits must always be the first priority. For an instant, in this case, if Leary accepted Chung’s request, this kind of threatening might occur again in the future, either by Chung or others who saw the method had worked. Explaining reasons why the request couldn’t be granted and different views/ comments from others were necessary, but if it doesn’t work, sometimes acting absolute is the only way to solve the conflicts.



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