Thursday, March 29, 2012

Nature vs. Nurture

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Nature vs. Nurture

In my opinion, nurture plays a significant role in development. From infancy to

adulthood, outside influence is responsible in decision-making. Infants will mock or

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imitate the actions of others. They may start with some form of sign language, in an

attempt to communicate with an adult. Toddlers develop their language skills by repeating

sounds, words, and/or phrases they hear from their immediate surroundings. During the

early childhood years, a child may view another preschooler pushing and shoving on the

playground. In return, the child may use the same inappropriate behavior to obtain or

prove something. Adolescents are notorious in proving the nurture theory. Teenagers

often find themselves in the midst of peer pressure. They often follow friends or other

groups in an attempt to fit in. Children of all ages are affected by nurture.

Even in adulthood, nurture is evident. It could even be a combination of the

above-described situations. Perhaps an adult was neglected or even physically abused as a

child. That may or may not influence him to abuse his or her children. Maybe a college

student inspired a child; as an adult, that child may go to college. Peer pressure could

even influence an adult. I stole, because my friend was doing it. I witness someone

else doing it. A physical altercation on the behalf of an adult could have been a reaction

from a previous experience. Unfortunately, adults even make childish choices.

Whether you are a child or an adult, nurture plays an important part in overall

development. The environmental surroundings can impact the life of a child or adult. Air

pollution, water contaminants, poisons, and so much more can cause other negative

developments. There can be a development of cancer, brain impairments, and other

physcial and mental functions.

Nurture can be a result of another persons influence. However, nurture can also

result from controllable and uncontrollable environmental factors. Nature cannot be

completely ruled out, but nurture seems to be the superior influence in development.

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Wednesday, March 28, 2012


If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on stereotype. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality stereotype paper right on time.

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I believe that everyone had the experience of having been the victim of stereotype. I had been the victim of stereotype who is always misjudged because of my appearance and age. Among these unfair experiences, one has given me a deep impression.

Last summer, I got a summer job, which was selling some prepaid phone cards. There are about sixty types of prepaid phone cards in our store. They had different rates and the countries they call to are also different, so I pushed myself to memorize all information on the phone cards. My job is to listen to what our customers need and then advise to them which card can fulfill their needs.

One time, a man came to our store and said he wanted to find some phone cards to call to Singapore. But after he knew Im new, his manner changed immediately. He became angry. He said, ”I dont want to talk to you. You cant help me..... What do you know? Young girl. You must dont know everything, ask your manager or senior salesman to serve me. I dont believe you?

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But at that time, the manager and other saleswomen both had gone lunch. So I explained to him politely, Sir, all other saleswomen are out now. I think I can help you also. These are some types of phone card, which call to Singapore? I took out some phone cards, and told him what were the differences among them, for example, which one had the cheapest rate, which one can hear better. But obviously, he didnt listen to me, because he had already judged me as young and new, so I dont know anything. Even though I tried my very best to persuade him, it seemed I worked in vain, because I faced the most stubborn man in the world. He said, “Did you hear me that I dont want you to serve me? Im your stores long-term customer, I bought hundreds of phone cards here, so I knew everyone in your store except you. Last time a new girl like you recommended a phone card to me, but when I used that I found that the quality was so poor, I can’t hear what my friend said at all. I was angry at that time, but I still had to smile at him just because he was my customer.

After a while, our manager came back. Once the man saw our manager, he changed his face and his tone of voice immediately. He complained to our manager that I couldn’t help him. I was so embarrassed. Then my manager took out some cards and said they were good for that man. Only they were good? These three words, the man felt at ease and paid the money immediately. The most ridiculous thing was I had recommended the cards he bought half an hour ago. The man left satisfied, because he thought that he found his right card finally. However, I, the new employee and girl, was so frustrated because of his behavior. My manager consoled me that every new salesman/saleswoman would face this situation. His understand and forgiveness made me felt better.

I think we have to put ourselves in her/his shoes for a minute occasionally. All peoples nature is selfish, well think about our interest before others. Sometimes we do the things, which make ourselves better off, but may hurt other people. In Chinese, there is a phrase which has similar meaning of put yourself in her / his shoes for a minute, my parents used to tell me to remember it when Im making my decision all the time. Also, I expect other people use this attitude to treat me too. If I dont want other people to misjudge me, I have not to misjudge other people first, thats what I think. If everyone in the world can behave like this, there may be no crying, or anger or even no wars...

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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Shock. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Shock paper right on time.

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The content of this topic paper is “Shock”. Shock has several different classifications, and is a progressive widespread reduction in tissue perfusion that results from a decrease in effective circulating blood volume causing a decrease in oxygen delivery and/or exchange in capillary circulation. Each type of shock involves numerous clinical manifestations that may also represent other conditions, making diagnosis difficult. So, let us take a look at the different classifications of shock Anaphylactic, Cardiogenic, Hypovolemic, and Septic. (Silvestri 00) missing comma between Silvestri and 00; period follows references.

Anaphylactic shock begins as anaphylaxis, an immune and inflammatory reaction to an allergen. If this reaction is not treated the client goes into anaphylactic shock. Most common symptoms are, but not limited to, hives and swelling of the throat, lips, tongue, and around the eyes with difficulty breathing or swallowing. It only takes one or two minutes for a mild allergic reaction to escalate to anaphylaxis. Death may occur if emergency treatment is not provided. The first nursing consideration is to establish an airway and the administration of vasopressor agents, especially epinephrine and antihistamines. Oxygen should be initiated and I.V. fluids given rapidly, if indicated, along with any other emergency drugs according to facility protocol. Once the client is stable he or she should be instructed on avoiding common allergies, and how to recognize an allergic reaction. (Guyton, 16) see above

Cardiogenic shock results from any cause of heart failure and is notoriously unresponsive to treatment. With in hospital mortality rate ranging from 50% to 80%, these statistics improve with the use of percutaneous angioplasty and thrombolytic/aspirin therapy following an MI. This sentence reads awkwardly. Clinical manifestations include hypotension, urinary output of less than 0ml/hr, cold clammy skin, poor peripheral pulses, tachycardia, pulmonary congestion, tachypnea, disorientation, restlessness and continued chest pain. Nursing considerations are to administer morphine as ordered to decrease pulmonary congestion and relieve pain, administer oxygen, prepare for intubation and mechanical ventilation if necessary, administer nitrates and diuretics as ordered while monitoring B/P constantly. The nurse should also administer vasopressors and inotropics as prescribed to maintain organ perfusion, monitor ABG’s and be prepared to treat imbalances, and monitor I&O. Patient should be prepared for possible intraortic balloon pump, PTCA, CABG and insertion of Swan-Ganz catheter to assess heart failure. (Houston, 17) see above about reference punctuation

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Hypovolemic shock is characterized by a decrease in intravascular volume as a result of hemorrhage or dehydration. Clinical manifestations are cool clammy skin, tachycardia, tachypnea, weak thready pulses, hypotension, mental status changes, and a decrease in urine output with the appearance being dark and concentrated. Nursing considerations consists of maintaining client on NPO status, or fluid restrictions until cause is determined. If the cause is from hemorrhage, the bleeding is controlled and possible blood transfusions to replace lost blood volume. Medications should be administered to decrease B/P, such as Dopamine and norepinephrine. If dehydration is the underlying cause, IV fluids are administered to replace electrolytes. (Rice, 11)

Septic shock is an abnormal condition that occurs when there is an over whelming infection in the body. Clinical manifestations include fever, chills, lightheadedness, SOB, palpitations, cool pale extremities, elevated temperature, restlessness, agitation, lethargy or confusion. Nursing considerations consist of the administration of oxygen to treat respiratory distress if present, administration of antibiotics, IV fluids to replace lost volume, antipyretics to decrease temperature if present, vasoactive medication to treat decreased B/P, and hemodynamic monitoring for the evaluation of pressure in the heart. (Marieb, 15)

In summary, the major classes of shock are anaphylactic, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and septic. Any of the above states may be combined which would complicate the picture and reduce the possibility of a successful outcome. Shock is a life threatening condition that requires immediate medical treatment. Some degree of shock can accompany any medical emergency, and can get worse very rapidly. The nursing staff should provide additional comfort measures, along with the other implementations listed above in order to help the client regain maximum level of wellness.

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Tuesday, March 27, 2012


If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on rocknroll. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality rocknroll paper right on time.

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Rock and Roll isn’t all fun and games

What’s the first thing you think of when you hear the word’s Rock-n-Roll? If you thought of sex and drugs, believe me you’re not alone. The main reason I began playing music was for those two reasons, but I would soon find out that there is a lot more to music then just sex and drugs. My band the Subterranean Hooligans were booked for a show on March 5th. The weeks leading up to and the day itself were part of the most grueling month in my life.

The work all started at the beginning of the month. We (Dave, Tommy, and I) printed off about seven hundred fliers. Every day we would hand them out, around school, the mall, and any other place we thought there would be large masses of youth. It seemed every store had a problem with us promoting so we would have to come up plans to make it less obvious we were selling ourselves. We would drop fliers in front of people and ask them to pick them up, when they would go to hand them back to us we’d be gone. Dave came up with a plan to wear a sign that said “ask about the fliers” on his shirt, when people did they got a flier.

Finally, after weeks of scrutinizing promotion the day of the show had arrived. At eight-thirty p.m. we were scheduled to go on. We were awake at six-thirty, By nine-o clock we were at the Grotto ready to setup; at least we thought that, that was going to happen. When we got there we soon realized we had no stage, so we headed over to Lowe’s to see what we could get together. It took us three hours to construct a stage but we finally got it done. Now all that was left was setup, and sound check. It was about two hours from show time and we still hadn’t heard from the band that was up to play first, this created another problem. Without the bands’ equipment or the band for that matter we couldn’t do a sound check or setup. Finally they arrived and we were off.

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All in all the show lasted about four hours, it was now time to pack up and take it all home. We packed the equipment up first; it required two trips to get all of our equipment home. Then we had to come back and grab the stage; this also took two trips since the stage was so big. By the time everything was said and done it was about one-o clock in the a.m. and we were pooped. Although we still managed enough energy to have a kick ass party afterward.

Playing rock and roll isn’t just sex and drugs, it’s hard work, and practice. To anyone who doubts this I suggest you try it out for yourself sometime, you may gain a whole new respect for the business, I know I did.

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Ways to be more creative or How I am creative

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Kimberly Rogers

English Comp.111

Donald Stinson

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September 1, 00

God VS Migraines

If you believe in God and miracles then

Migraines are a thing of the past

I used to think that the power of prayer was nothing but words and hype. I lived most of my life with tremendous headaches known as migraines. These migraines would get so intense they would even blind me temporally. A lot of times I would sit on the side of the bed, rocking back and forth, rubbing my head and hurting so bad I just wanted to die. My mother has had migraines since she was very small also. She always told me that migraines come from your hair being to long or to heavy. But I have had long hair and a lot of it since 1. She has been keeping her hair short for years and she still has migraines, but telling her different is next to impossible. She says that she has prayed several times and she still has them, and she has asked people to pray for her and it does not work. I now know differently and here is why!

About fours years ago I had a really bad migraine. I was even begging my husband to kill me and get it over with. My loving husband told me it was just the pain talking and that was not what I wanted. I was so tired of hurting and not being able to see, I did not care what happened to me as long as it stopped the headaches. I would not let him take me to the hospital because all they could do was give me a shot and send me home and in a few hours it would be right back, so why go? I am not sure if my husband was just tired of hearing me beg him to kill me or if he was tired of seeing me in pain, or what, but he called the pastor of our church and told him how I was feeling and told him that I just wanted to die. The pastor told him to start praying for me and he would be right over. The pastor prayed for me and my headache did go away. But then low and behold it was back and back with a vengeance days later.

Looking back now I am not sure if I did not truly believe in what the pastor had done at our home, or if God was letting this happen again this Sunday to help others believe. Come Sunday, even though I did not feel like it, I got up and went to church, but all I wanted to do was cry. My head hurt so badly I thought it was ripping apart and I was having trouble focusing or even seeing anything. I was the Sunday school teacher for grades -6 so I had to be there. I was not about to let the kids down because of a headache. But the kids knew I did not feel good so they asked the pastor to pray for me. At the beginning of the church service he called me up front. As we knelt at the Alter he asked me if I believed in God and I said yes. He then asked me if I believed in the healing power of Prayer. I told him that I have never seen it work personally, but I believed it could. He then asked me to pray to God for his healing power to heal me of my headaches. He told me he knew that I had faith, and that I would have to believe that it was going to work or it wouldn’t. I needed to just turn it over to God and let him have it to do his healing and that is what I did. He had been praying with me for a long while. He then looked up and asked for any one else that believed in the power of prayer to come and help us, for this was a bad headache. By the time we stopped praying my headache was gone and I have been migraine headache free since April 15, 1.

I believe that if you are not a “TRUE” believer in the power of Prayer and in God then it won’t work. God’s power is only as strong in you as you let it be. In the Bible, in Mathew 1 it tells where Jesus curses the fig tree that wouldn’t bare fruit and immediately it withered up. The disciples asked him why it withered so fast? In verses 1 and , Jesus replied, “I tell you the truth, if you have faith and do not doubt, not only can you do what was done to the fig tree, but also you can say to this mountain, ‘Go, throw yourself in the sea,’ and it will be done. If you believe, you will receive whatever you ask in prayer.”

If you stand in the way of God and his wishes then nothing will happen for you. Everything will go just the opposite. But if you let God stand for you and have his way than there is nothing that can stand against you. I have become one of the biggest believers of all in the Power of Prayer, because it really does work. For most people if you ask them if they believe in the healing power of prayer they will tell you yes, that is if they are believers in Christ, true believers in Christ that is. Some people will argue that it is all a hoax. How can it be a hoax when it has really worked for me? God is more powerful than anything-even migraines.

Please note that this sample paper on Ways to be more creative or How I am creative is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Ways to be more creative or How I am creative, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Ways to be more creative or How I am creative will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, March 26, 2012


If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Etruscans. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Etruscans paper right on time.

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ʑ The facts of the Etruscan civilization eluded historians for millennia. Most of the stories

and tales of their society were either destroyed or were written by Greeks or Romans with a bias

in favor of the author’s city, so much so that it forced the reader to believe the Etruscans were

either a mysterious evil civilization with a penchant for piracy and a luxurious way of life, or an

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ancient race of no significance whatsoever. Because there were so many great ancient

civilizations to study, most people believed the stories of an irrelevant Empire to be true, until

recently, when archeological findings in the 100s led historians and archeologists to turn their

beliefs in a whole different direction. How much the Etruscan people may have directly

influenced western civilization is still a matter of some speculation, but their influences on the

later Roman culture are either directly evidenced or strongly suggested through much of the

Etruscan life style. This influence is not militaristic or political, but found in the arts and in

professional trades such as engineering, architecture and city planning. The Etruscans are now

recognized as “tireless cultivators, founders of cities, bold navigators, deft craftsmen; soldiers,

traders, builders of temples, dykes and forts,” and noteworthy artists.

The Etruscans ruled in Italy from 750 B.C. to 60 B.C., a flourishing Empire prior to the

time of the Roman conquest of the Etruscan cities. The Etruscan Empire had its beginnings

when the Roman culture was little more than a small group of huts that was the start of the

Roman community. Etruria, the region where the Etruscans began their habitation, occupied a

significant part of the northern Italian peninsula and there they built Italy’s first great civilization,

spreading an advanced and cultured society across the land. The ways of the Etruscans were

considered so different that the writings of authors from foreign lands, who included the

Etruscans in their works, considered them to be bizarre and alien. The Etruscans , however, do

not appear to have been aggressive conquers and it is now believed that they did not want to

make contact with other nations for mastery, but instead wanted to open trade, create allies, and

discover new land to found cities. This was perhaps due to the pre-Italian background of the

Etruscans, an obscure history with mysteries that are still unsolved.

The origins of the Etruscans are still a matter of controversy and have been the subject

of speculation from the first historian to chronicle Etruscan life, Herodotus, and later the Roman

historian, Livy. Herodotus’ accounts report that the Etruscans originated from Lydia on the

western coast of Asia Minor, and with them brought order and civilization to the Italian

peninsula’s barbaric environment. Herodotus explains that natives of Lydia, because of a long

famine, decided to divide the population into two groups, one remaining in Lydia with the king

and the other emigrating with the kings son in search of a new homeland. The land that became

Etruria more or less parallels the Italian coast, from the mountains of the Alps to the southern

coast. Livy reports that the Etruscans made their way up the Adriatic Sea and the Etruscans are

also known to have lived on the island of Lemnos, and in other localities on the northeastern

shores of the Aegean Sea. It is unlikely that the Etruscans were indigenous to Italy because

everything the Etruscans brought to Italy was new to that part of the world. Everything about

their culture, technology and architecture, farming methods and mines, crafts and industries,

customs and fashions, religion, language, way of life and military structure was totally different

from anything that had existed in the area before. Though the resemblance of their rituals and

religious practices, the funeral customs, and the similarities of language, the Etruscans are linked

to Lydia and Asia Minor. However, confusion may have been caused because, even with such

great similarities to other distant civilizations, the Etruscans appear to have had an amazing ability

to adapt to many of the Greek cultural customs. Moreover, because the Etruscan cities and

Empire was annihilated by about 00 B.C., what we know of them comes solely from tombs and

excavations, and archeologists searching a extinct civilization have difficulty finding a human

affinity for the Etruscan people. This is strange because the Etruscans left an abundance of

materials evidence so that we know what they looked like, how they lived, and a good deal about

their public and private customs so that we can glimpse into their internal lives. Etruscans have

developed a historical importance because they are mysterious, which intrigues historians, and for

what their culture provided and passed on to other civilizations. While they were the greatest

sailors of their time and ruled the entire Italian coast with such mastery of the sea that they were

feared by all other nations, their naval and military feats were a matter of legends, exciting

episodes and incidents of derring-do, the Etruscan’s legacy is not military, but is found in those

things revealed in artifacts of an advanced society and culture. Archeological findings will

continue to shed light on the beginnings of the civilization, but what has already been discovered

reveals the approach the Etruscans took toward settlement of land was highly successful and, at

the peak of the Etruscan’s rule, they reigned over the whole of Italy.

Over the span of the Etruscan Empire’s 500 year existence, it had four ages Gold, Silver,

Bronze and Black Iron. The period which historians call the Golden Age is the time of the

Etruscans greatest rule, a time of growth and expansion and hope that declined over centuries

until the Iron Age when men took the law into their own hands and Rome’s conquest of Etruria

was complete. With each age the Etruscans changed their lifestyle, which has led to the

discovery of many different types, styles and varieties of artifacts which show influences from

many areas surrounding the Mediterranean. Recently discovered artifacts are the key to

unraveling the Etruscan mysteries. The Etruscan artifacts suggest they were a thoughtful people,

and the Greeks seem to have greatly influenced them, especially in Etruscan art where Greek

mythological figures appear frequently. The Etruscans greatest artistic talent was in bronze, not

clay, but many vases have been recovered, a large number of which are covered in painted figures,

and it is from these that a significant part of Etruscan history has been gleaned. Bucchero ware,

the Etruscan’s famous black pottery, was known all throughout the Mediterranean area. Created

only by the City of Caere, Bucchero ware received it’s unique black color by firing the clay so that

the oxygen and iron formed a ferrous oxide bond which looks black. The figures painted on

these vases, frequently have replica paintings of Greek gods and goddesses, and many of these

even include the Greek, not Etruscan, title of the god. Another unique Etruscan pottery is the

Red-Figured vases, found at Caere and which show women, satyrs, and other individuals in a

variety of settings. However, as the Etruscan civilization expanded and their rule grew, the

Etruscans changed their style and technique of artwork. Soon it was only the basic idea that was

contrived from Greek mythology, and the works of art themselves were completely and uniquely

Etruscan. This is shown by art which is more influenced by nature, art which did not show the

gods at all but which depicted humans interacting with nature. From these vases historians have

learned the complex society that blossomed in Etruria and the figures show a variety of sports and

games, social scenes, music and dancing, military engagements, natural and super natural


The region that was Etruria had twelve main cities on the Italian peninsula. There is no

authoritative list of the cities, but their names have been deduced to be Arretium (Arezzo), Caere

(Cerveteri), Clusium, Cortona, Perusia (Perugia), Populonia, Rusellae, Tarquinii (Tarquinia), Veii

(Veio), Vetulonia, Volaterrae (Volterra), and Vulci. The three most influential of the cities were

Vulci, Veii, and Caere, near coastal ports where the Etruscan sailors could shelter their merchant

and warships. The artistic differences among cities varied very little but the specialties of

particular cities did vary. Museums today, such as those in Rome, reveal “grand” works of

Etruscan art while others, such as Volterra, two thousand feet up in the hill country of Tuscany,

reveal simple items that show the story of every day life.

In addition to artistic talent, engineering and scientific skills are apparent among the

Etruscans, since the design of cities was along the four points of a compass with the temples lying

on the North and South points. When Etruscans decided the location of a city, ceremonies were

performed to consecrate the spot where the city was going to be built. The first settlements of

the Etruscans in the Tuscany area were in a hilly part of the northern Italian peninsula. This area

was too hilly to encourage purely geometric city schemes, but every city had three gates, each for

a road that converged to the main road leading to the city’s temples. The reason for this road

design was that temples were the focal point of city life and the most beautiful architectural

ornaments of a city. The temple was the most prominent structure in any Etruscan city.

Unfortunately, temples were built out of wood not marble or stone so only the foundation of

temples remain. The Etruscans were masters of masonry construction but decided not to use their

knowledge and skills for the building of their temples for various religious reasons. The design of

an Etruscan temple paralleled that of a Greek temple but with some distinct differences. The

temple itself rested on one tall base. This base was no wider than the cella, or indoor portion of a

temple, and only had steps on the South side leading into a deep porch. The porch was supported

by two rows of four columns each, one nearest the stairs and the other nearest the entrance to the

cella. Alike to the Greeks, the columns were Doric, but the Etruscans never used Ionic or

Corinthian columns, as do the Greeks and Romans. The cella was generally subdivided into three

subsections. The reasons behind the division was that Etruscan religion was dominated by a triad

of gods who were the predecessors to the Roman Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva. Therefore, the

layout for an Etruscans temple was squarish and closely related to domestic architecture of the

Etruscan living.

After moving from hilly Tuscany to flat Rome, Etruscan cities were engineered more

precisely and based on two main intersecting roads creating four subsections in the city, following

which the four sub sections could then be further divided. This form of road organization directly

influenced later engineers and was adopted by the Romans for their city structures. Etruscan

engineers worked in conjunction with religious persons. After consulting the omens, an augurer

would act as surveyor and use instruments and the position of the sun to determine what the

orientation of the city would be. The four points of the two main roads were laid out on the

four cardinal directions with the main temple at the northern point where there was no gate.

Secondary streets were parallel and perpendicular to the two main roads forming a checkerboard

pattern. The Romans adopted many of the concepts of the Etruscan road system; processional

roads and main roads leading up to temples, and road planning throughout the land including

similar concepts for cross country roads connecting cities. If Romans followed the Etruscan

roads between cities is not known, but the Etruscans had a network of road spread out over the

countryside which were the first in western Europe provided a model for the Roman’s great

military highways.

Although many questions about the Etruscans are still unanswered, relatively recent

findings have uncovered previously unknown facts. For instance, Etruscan people were small in

stature. According to paintings found in Etruscan ruins, together with recovered Etruscan

furnishings and clothes, the average height of Etruscan men was about five feet four inches.

Consequently, it is probably that height was a determining factor for the buildings and other

aspects of Etruscan life. Paintings and sculptures depict banquet couches and low foot benches

with men and women reclining and it is likely that the interior spaces of buildings, and the

dimensions of living areas and furnishings would have been designed proportionate to the

Etruscan people.

The advanced nature of the Etruscan culture is shown by their homes. Within the ruins and

remains of Etruria there is evidence of a sophisticated society where even small things, such as

clothing, marking social status. Etruscan wealth was measured in material items of valued

substance, such as gold, ivory and precious stones. During the sixth century B.C., wealthy

aristocratic Etruscans indulged themselves and bought all they could afford in an effort to create

luxurious living conditions. The Etruscans began the use of an atrium-type area, a courtyard

used for formal and informal occasions, and this too was adopted by the Romans. Unfortunately,

Etruscan atriums were generally constructed of soft materials and few are still standing for present

time investigation. For the period, Etruscan houses were of an improved designed and were

built from dried mud bricks with a heavy wooden frame. The usual home of a person from an

aristocratic position was about 100 square feet in a rectangle 0 by 40 feet, which may have

relevance to the average Etruscan’s stature. The house was set upon a foundation of tufa blocks,

which are a porous rock formed as a deposit of springs or streams. The pitched roof was covered

with terra cotta tiles that could range from small pieces to three feet long and eighteen inches

wide. Advanced architectural features are found in the roof, whcih extended far beyond the walls

of the house in order to protect the brick and timber from rain or other harsh weather conditions

and every door and window of an Etruscan home was framed by sturdy wooden posts and lintels.

Depending on the wealth of the homeowner, the gables and eaves of each house were decorated

as elaborately as a temple. The terra cotta reliefs were further decorated with pictures of animals

and monsters, as well as graphic designs.

On the backside of a house, a fenced outdoor courtyard led to the vestibule, or entrance

room. The vestibule was only a few feet wide but was nearly the length of the house itself. It is

this vestibule that evolved in to what was known as the atrium to the Romans. The vestibule

served many purposes to an Etruscan home. It was used for the delivery from merchants, a

passageway for servants to do their bidding, and also the servants living and sleeping quarters.

From the far side of the vestibule were doors with access to the other rooms of the house. These

doors stretched across the length of the vestibule and were side by side to one another so that any

part of the home could be accessed from the vestibule. Curiously, the location where members of

a family slept are still uncertain.

The center room of the home was small, about fifteen feet wide but had many functions.

During the day the owner of the home used this room for business while at night this room could

be transformed into a place of parties, banquets, and a room to sleep when guests were too drunk

to find their way home. Two of the side rooms of the home were used for a kitchen and a room

for storing food, grain, and wine.

Of all aspects of an Etruscan home, one of the most advanced is plumbing and waste

disposal. The Etruscans differed from the Romans and Greeks in that fact that they did not have

to manually empty their houses of waste because of their excellent plumbing lines. Lucius

Tarquinius, the first Etruscan King of Rome is credited with providing sewer service from the city

to the river. Stone-lined drains led from the house to the main ditch to provide discharge

plumbing wastes and waste water. Other terra cotta pipes were made to fit into one another to

bring fresh water from an elevated cisterns. Many houses, to bring water in even more easily, had

their own stone-lined wells within their courtyards.

The dress and social lives of Etruscans also varied in many ways from the Romans and

Greeks of that time, although there were some similarities. In order to keep the Etruscan

aristocrats happy in their luxurious life style, lower class citizens would work on their large farms

to provide for the many requests of the rich and powerful. According to frescoes and wall

paintings left by the Etruscans in the tombs of nobles and the wealthy, these members of highers

society held frequent banquets, perhaps even nightly. Men and women both ate the finest foods

and choice wines. They were entertained by dancers and musicians, who doubled as house

servants at other times. The Etruscans were apparently quite hedonistic and, at these sybaritic

banquets, men and women lounged on long divans and were served by naked young boys while

dancers wore transparent dresses. In many ways the Etruscan family was no different in general

makeup and structure than that of the Romans or Greeks, but, unlike their Oriental and Arab

contemporaries, the Etruscans did not practice polygamy, communal wife sharing, or incest within


Social custom was important in Etruscan cities and is one of the most understood parts of

the culture due to the many vases, paintings and frescoes. Custom was shown in items such as the

clothing worn in Etruria, which eventually influenced the Roman toga. In the summer, men

wore round neck, close fitting robes, which reached down to the ankles. The left arm sleeve went

to the wrist, while the right arm only reached the elbow. The entire robe criss-crossed vertically

and horizontally, seeming as if the robe was tucked. The same type of garment was worn in the

winter, but the fabric was wool, not cotton or silk. Women wore short-sleeved tunics, light

colors, frequently embroidered. The material was pleated and reached the ankles. As did the

men, the women wore cotton or silk in the summer and wool in the winter. However, variety of

dress is also apparent in painting that show such things as flowered dresses, voluminous cloaks,

scarves and ankle high boots. Head wear also marked a person’s home or role in Etrurian society

and apparently could cause some confusion. Women might wear a tutulus, a high cap, and

because the Italian region did so much farming, hats were a very important necessity to everyday

farming life. Depending on what a person did for a living and where a person lived on the

waterways, determined if they wore hats. In the upper Po River valley region, both men and

women wore broad brimmed hats, whereas, in the lower Po valley, only the slaves, who worked

the fields, wore hats. Consequently, there were instances in which a person had to know where in

Etrusia they were to know the proper form of dress. The only other form of hat used by Etrurian

men was a helmet, of the type worn in battle. This helmet, worn by warriors, effected hair styles.

For the extra protection and padding for their helmet, men wore their hair parted down the middle

in braids which were wrapped around their heads. After the braids went out of style, men wore

their hair shorter, more clean cut, like Greek youths and apparently found some other form of

padding for their helmets. Women had more variety in hair styles, depending on the fashion of the

day. Women also wore braided hair under a hat, or one braid over the shoulder drawn up in a

knot and curls often framed the face.

An advanced society and personal riches were the products of Etruscan talents. The

Etruscans were skilled miners who exploited Italy’s natural resources, such as copper, lead, iron

and did extensive metal finish work. Etruscan metal workers were praised highly by the Romans

and Greeks for their work in bronze and precious metals. The Etruscans traded aggressively

with the Greek colonies south of Sicily and Ionia, and with Phoenician ports. Etruria was

founded on the trade of copper and iron, which were both soft metals and in great demand. This

much benefitted the Etruscans because the soil in the mountains of their homelands were iron rich

and easily mined. The iron mines in the Italian mountains were Europe’s first major industry and

it is probable that this ore was their biggest business and the basis of Etruria’s fabulous wealth.

With wealth also came education and professional trades such as medicine flourished. The

Etruscan doctor was a physician, dentist, oculist and pharmacist all at once and had a complete

stock of remedies to treat patients. Tradesmen produced goods of excellent quality, and good

foods, wines and oils were available.

In the ancient world, religious and social planning were directly related to nature and

natural sciences. Basic natural science was highly developed in Etruria and the Etruscan calendar

was based on the phases of the moon, as was the later Roman calendar. This calendar marked

festivals, the kings activities, and every eighth day, which was market day. The Etruscans loved

nature and went hunting, fishing and swimming often. Also, many people owned and raised

animals and owned or operated farms. Every year the valley areas would flood and, in order to

use this natural occurrence to accomplish two tasks � draining the valley and irrigating the dryer

areas � the Etruscans invented methods for irrigation. Irrigation allows farmers to expand their

growing season and growing areas, and by doing this the Etruscans would have been able to

produce more of the items they needed and would have been less dependent on other nations for

foods. Their ability to be self-sufficient and independent would have allowed them the

opportunity to develop a broad range of talents and Etruscans became miners, farmers, ranchers,

sailors, merchants and, when necessary, warriors.

Societies are often judged by their appreciation of the arts and music was a huge part of

Etruscan life. Every Etruscan youth was taught music, either by rote or by ear, as depicted in

many Etruscan frescos. It is believed that, just as important as the music was to society, so was

the singing and dancing that accompanied the music. The classical Greek and Etruscan style of

music were very similar There were many different forms of dancing, some more casual and one

for every formal occasion such as courting and formal balls. Even funerals developed a specific

style of dance appropriately entitled funereal dancing. In courting, the way the women danced

was called “Round” and the men’s style was “Martial”. The Etruscans did not dance in couples,

but stood facing each other, following their own dance. Interestingly, though the Etruscan lifestyle

included many types of dance, none are said to have been performed with extreme gracefulness.

Nevertheless, the Etruscans were great lovers of music and, with the Etruscan’s love of music

came a number of different instruments.

In Etruscan paintings and reliefs, a flute is often represented and is present in many every

day scenes depicting everything from bakers to thieves. This has caused historians to believe that

the flute or long double pipe, was the national and regional instrument of Etruria. Besides the

flute, the Etruscans had other wind instruments, including the trumpet, which they are credited

with inventing. The Etruscans had two forms of the trumpet. The first one was a straight bronze

tube sometimes curved at on end. The other was twisted like a ram’s horn. Rome adopted both

trumpet styles for their use. In addition, Etruscans has several varieties of stringed instruments

including the lyre, harp and cithara. The Etruscans also had entertainment in the form of plays

and they may have formed orchestras to be used for adding music to their plays. Because

gestures were often used in these plays, rather than dialogue, the Etruscans are also credited with

developing mime. Interestingly, while Rome followed much of the Etruscan lifestyle, unlike the

Greeks and Etruscans, the Romans love for music was never as deep or passionate.

Another difference between Etruscan and Roman societies was the place held by women.

“Women were not only equal members of society with their husbands and fathers, but enjoyed

much of the same status that ladies had in the Age of Chivalry. Their liberated condition, in fact,

was unique in the ancient world.” The massive amount of freedom Etruscan women enjoyed

caused the Romans to look down on the entire Etruscan civilization. Whereas, if a Roman

woman were to be respectable, she must be adapted to enjoying few freedoms, the Etruscan

women were used to being free. The Roman’s reasons for looking down upon Etruscan women

was that, instead of serving the men, the women considered themselves on a par with men and

even dined with the men. Etruscan women went outside a great deal, unlike Greek and Roman

women, who lived in the shadows of their homes. In formal dress, women went to dances,

concerts, and sporting events such a boxing and chariot racing. This made Etruscan women seem

indiscrete to the Romans but, although the Romans looked down upon Etruscan women, many

Romans had Etruscan brides. When the Roman men brought their Etruscan brides home, the men

were disgraced at the ladies lack of manners and soon forced their wives to fit Roman standards.

Similarly, the Greeks, who were very narrow minded, looked on a woman’s rights as the worst

kind of social misbehavior.

If an Etruscan woman had a high enough rank, she was given a good education and, in

addition to social mixing and informal freedoms, Etruscan women were involved a great deal in

the politics of their cities. Nevertheless, even through women were granted equal rights in many

things, the Etruscan family was a patriarchy and, as far as the formal the order of the family was

designed, women always came second. This is somewhat confusing because in Lydia, the

supposed original Etruscan homeland, the society is matriarchal such that children are called by

their mother’s name not their father’s. Etruscans were paternalistic and used the same authority

of the pater familias the Romans gave to the head of the family.

Complex and sophisticated religion was another sign of the Etruscan’s advanced society.

The Etruscans believed in a great connection between man, nature, celestial, terrestrial and even

the underworld. Everything was integrated in a huge rhythm. The Etruscan’s had a myth that

told the tale of how the basic law of their religion was written. According to the story, a farmer

saw a child rise up from the ground, but the child, Tages, was gifted with the wisdom of the

priests and kings. When the other priests, the Lucumones of the twelve cities of Etruria, heard the

screams of the farmer, the priests came running to see what was wrong. When they arrived, the

child began to speak. As the child spoke, the priests wrote it down. These words became the

religious law for the Etruscans, the Diciplina Etrusca.

One key difference in Roman and Etruscan religion is Romans believed everything

happened because the gods willed it. The Etruscans, on the other hand, weren’t too worried

about gods, except as they might effect a person’s afterlife, and thought many events happened

just as events in the normal course of living. The Etruscans were not as paranoid about the god’s

intervention in everyday events, but were still god fearing people and were as bloody in their

rituals as the Romans. Their luxurious lives were a cause for their religious fervor and

thanksgiving. Also, because of their belief of an afterlife, it was a prime concern of Etruscans to

please the gods and thus to obtain a pleasurable post-death.

Like the Greeks and Romans, the Etruscans believed in a god hierarchy. There were

sixteen deities in the family of gods. Twelve of those sixteen were great gods, and eight of these

twelve had the right to hurl thunderbolts. Each thunderbolt was assigned to a specific god

differentiated by whatever color it was. The Etruscans had the same basic gods as the Greeks

and Romans, but all the groups had different names. Tinia, who is equivalent to the Greek god

Zeus and the Roman god Jupiter, was the head god and sat at the summit of the north. The

Etruscans also believed in an underworld similar to the Greeks. The Etruscan religion even

included a demon, Charun, who ferried dead souls across the River Styx. This demon parallels

the virtually identical Greek demon, Charon. Besides worshiping the main gods, Etruria’s minor

gods were worshiped in individual cults. Though little is know about the actual rituals, the

remains of the open air sanctuaries remain. The only known facts were found on paintings on the

walls of tombs. Religious ceremonies began with a trumpeter who wore clothes of the gods,

purple and gold. This trumpeter carried an ivory scepter crowned with laurel leaves. He was

followed by lectors, priests, prisoners, and the general public. The new custom of a religious

procession for the priests and other noble men was soon taken up as Roman tradition.

To ward off invasion by gods or outside forces, the sacrifices were better if from your

own country, and even better if from your own family. The Etruscans believed this to be true, and

were as hardened to human sacrifice and the sight of human suffering as the Romans, as shown by

ceremonies reproduced on Etruscan urns and frescoes. If “games” seen on frescoes were, in

fact, sacrifices and “the shedding of blood to maintain the flickering life of the dead, the savage

game shown in the fresco, can be understood.” This led to one of the most horrible fortune

telling styles in history in which a haruspices, or soothsayer, was trained to interpret the will of

the gods by examining the internal organs of animal and human sacrifices.

While human sacrifice may have seen barbaric, the Etruscans were known for their

elaborate and highly excessive tombs and funeral ceremonies. In order to accompany the

aristocratic lifestyle of the Etruscans, a “City of the Dead” was built. This city included streets and

plazas as would exist in a city of the living. Etruscan tombs differed houses because the tomb

replica homes were mainly carved out of solid rock. The tomb itself was approximately the

same size as an Etruscan hut but was highly more decorated in the amount of frescoes found on

the walls of the tombs. The beliefs that the Etruscans had was that the tomb was home for the

body and soul, so that the tomb must closely represent the life of the living as possible. Etruscans

tombs were carved out of soft stone in a round or rectangular shape. The shaping and building of

a tomb was taken more seriously by the Etruscans, as would a temple, because the Etruscans

believed if the dead was served well in the afterlife then they would not come back to haunt the

living. The actual sarcophagus for the dead was lavishly sculpted to show the deceased in a party

like atmosphere. The coffin was designed to resemble the deceased within. It was full length in

the shape of a divan with the dead lying on top as if they were about to banquet. Unlike most

Etruscans sculptures, coffins were most likely carved out of stone such as terra cotta instead of

bronze. Couples were usually buried together within the same tomb and even in the same

sarcophagus. To help the deceased, the tomb would often times be filled, like the Egyptians, with

the dead’s most valuable possessions, weapons, and food to provide for the afterlife. Each of the

items found in tombs, with the exception of food, included an engraving of some sort either to

show the decease’s power or the insignia of the family.

Another artistic aspect of the sophisticated society enjoyed by the Etruscans was visual

arts. Advanced engineering and elaborate art appear in temple structures. Though the

appearance of the size of the temples seemed to be large, they were squat, squarish shapes that

left room for few statues to be placed inside. The dividing of the temple into three regions would

have left the Etruscans with no place to arrange statues on the floor, and it is unlikely that the

wooden walls were strong enough to support the massive weight of a bronze statue. The

Etruscans were then forced to find another way of decorating their temples. Terra cotta plaques

covered the achitrave in the pediment, below the gable, above the porch. In one bold attempt to

add more artwork to the Temple to Apollo at Veii, the Etruscans adorned the temple roofs with

terra-cotta figures and constructed a monumental statue that stood on top of the gable ,at its

peak, in front of the stairs. Also on the two sides ridges of the temple and the top ridge four life

size statues stood. These statues added a very dramatic effect to this particular temple, but the

idea must have been a poorly received by the citizens because this technique of decorating a

temple was never used again.

The most important area of Etruscan art is tombs and the frescoes and other art works

found on Etruscan tomb walls. The frescoes are life size and cover whole walls from floor to

ceiling. The images depicted on the frescoes in the tombs are of dancers in the springtime. The

dancers are usually women in thin brightly colored dresses dancing in a woodland area to the

music of young boys. The reasoning for the gaiety of the artwork was the same as that for the

coffin, that is, the tomb represented the life of a party then the afterlife of the dead would be like a

party as well. Also, if the dead were content and entertained in the afterlife they would not have

the time to haunt the living who buried them. Along with the images of the living world every

tomb included a painting of the Etruscan god of the dead.

It is noteworthy that, just as other aspects of Etruscan living changed with their decline

over the centuries, so did the idea of burying the dead. During the decline, the Etruscans began to

cremate their dead and pour the ashes into urns. These urns were usually in the shape of a hut or

the head of a man. Then small holes were dug in a side of a hill were the urns were buried. If one

was rich or powerful enough to have a tomb built they were not filled with, as before, with joyous

paintings of dancers but with relief art. The images found on the reliefs was of fearful demons

from a most un-welcoming afterlife. One of the most feared of the demons was known as the

“Demon of Death.” The “Demon of Death” was said to take the life away from a person and

drag in down to the afterlife. The colors found on such tombs were not as bright but just as

bold as their predecessors. To create such bright and bold colors the Etruscans used a mixture of

water and plaster to paint the walls and ceiling of tombs. This combination seeped into the soft

stone walls preserving the artwork in excellent condition. Most of the information found about

Etruscan living was discovered within the wall of the tombs.

Throughout the long period of painting tomb walls the art and technique used to paint

them changes dramatically. In late tombs and burial chambers a tendency to create a realistic

style of painting and sculpture instead of the surreal artwork found in earlier works of Etruscan

art. Besides just paintings and frescoes the reliefs also are depicted in very real styling. Etruscan

artists took great pride in creating art that would represent the portrayed as similar to the way

they actually looked. During the fifth and sixth century the Etruscan art style was very closely

related to the paintings found in Ionia. The curved mouths, almond shaped eyes, long fingers, and

long slender feet to show off their shoes, which they were very proud of. Also the artwork

portrayed the fashion of that period. These works showed many different scenes including funeral

scenes, banquets, athletic games, and dances. In the Fourth Century B.C. the Etruscans were

not prepared for their demise and their art reflected that idea. From Etruscan art being filled with

happy scenes of banquets and dancing they were filled with pictures of bloody fierce battle scenes.

The scenes including mythological battles as well as battles they were fighting in reality. Charun,

the Etruscan demon of the dead who ferried the dead across the river Styx, replaced youths

playing wind and stringed instruments in the sunny outdoors. The depressing expression of the

art was caused by three main reasons.

The worst of Etruria’s two problems was their declining business. The volume of trade

shrunk immensely. Etruia was no longer trading with as many countries as they were at the height

of their rule. The second main problem was the political powers in Eturia’s were very weak as

class conflicts grew. Lastly, the cities military was extremely venerable to attacks. Etruria was

never at one time under one strong leader. They may have spoken the same language, shared the

same religion and culture, but Eturia remained a small groups of city states much alike to those of

Greece. This allowed them to be successful in the early stages of the Empire, but proved to be

their downfall as the centuries passed. Although it is reasonable to assume that individual cities

sent colonists to neighbouring regions and would have entered into diplomatic alliances with each

other and foreign states, it is probable that each Etruscan city resolved problems in a manner that

was most beneficial to its own survival, most likely without regard for the interests of its allies or

neighbors. The independence of the city-states has been shown by archeological finds and it is

believed that these autonomous cities were bound together only by religion and common


Initially, the Etruscans were a greatly feared sea fearing people. These are reports of other

groups of people running in fear of the alleged pirates of the Tyrrhenian. The early Etruscans

were just as powerful on land a they were on sea. Tactical warfare gave the Etruscans a huge

advantage against their enemies. The Etruscans used phalanxes, like the Greeks did, but it is a

societal advancement that is credited for much of their success. The one weapon that was

acclaimed to be their “secret weapon” was not a fighting machine, but their strong leather shoes

that wrapped above their ankles. These shoes were said to have led the Etruscans to victory more

than their armor or weapons.

It is part of the Etruscan’s success that led to their downfall. The three principal causes of

the end of the Empire were economic collapse, disunity among the city-states and the one-time

lore and mystique of the Bronze Age Etruscans was overcome by the aggressiveness and might of

the Iron Age Romans. In time, the Etruscan society led to its own breakdown and the politics of

rulers and ruling classes, together with the pursuit of pleasure, led to lack of concern over military

matters, fragmentation of their society, and easy Roman conquest. In one instance, the leaders of

the City of Volsinii, apparently incapable of handing their own affairs, appealed to the Romans for

help in subduing a slave uprising, leading the Roman conquest and destruction of the city. In

most other instances, the Etruscans refused to unite to fight the common enemy and were

overcome one at a time, until the entire Etruscan civilization ceased to exist.

What remains is art. ʑBIBLIOGRAPHY

Banti, Luisa. Etruscan Cities and Cultures. Los Angeles University of California Press,


Beazley, J.D. Etruscan Vase-Painting. Oxford Clarendon Press, 147.

Beazley, J.D. Etruscan Vase Painting. Oxford Oxford University Press, 150.

Brown, W. Llewellyn. The Etruscan Lion. London Oxford University Press, 160.

Del Chiaro, Mario A. Etruscan Red-Figured Vase-Painting at Caere. Los Angeles

University of California Press, 174.

Hamblin, Dora Jane. The Etruscans. New York Time Inc, 175.

Hempl, George. Mediterranean Studies. New York AMS Publisher, Inc, 167.

Heurgon, Jacques. Daily Life of the Etruscans. New York The Macmillan Company, 164.

Janson, H.W. The History of Art. New York Harry N. Abrams Inc, 177.

Keller, Werner. The Etruscans. New York Alfred A. Knopf Inc, 174.

Mayani, Zacharie. The Etruscans Begin to Speak. New York Souvenir Press, LTD, 16.

Pallottino, Massimo. Etruscan Painting. Lausanne Skira Color Studio, Imprimeries

Reunies, S.A., 15.

Richardson, Emeline. The Etruscans, Their Art and Civilization. Chicago The University of

Chicago Press, 164.

Richardson, Emeline. Etruscan Sculptures. New York New American Library, 166.

Vaughan, Agnes Carr. Those Mysterious Etruscans. New York Doubleday and Company,

Inc, 164.

Wellard, James. The Search for the Etruscans. New York Saturday Review Press, 175.

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At this time, 0,000 individuals a year utilize Jack Valley Courses. We have 50 users who are in charge of scheduling the Valley for these organizational needs. The customers set up reservations for an organization of twenty to a hundred people. These fifty customers are the point of contact for the Jack’s Valley Scheduler. They are the people who answer what dates, times, equipment, and courses their organization needs. Jack’s Valley ‘s new network will support these points of contact by adding XP software and wireless cards to their Dell laptops. This will allow the customer to connect Jacks Valley from a laptop at their desk with ease and efficiency.

Medium and Distance

Upon final assessment of our client’s current network configuration and future needs, S4 has determined that a wireless network configuration for the Jacks Valley (JV) area is both necessary and advantageous. The need for a wireless configuration at JV is due in large part to the mobile nature of their business. Because JV is an outdoor training facility with only a few permanent buildings, users of the network need a solution that will allow them to do work in and/or around their central office site. Users rarely remain stationary at one point for long durations of time and thus, use laptops as their primary pc. Disconnecting and reconnecting hard-wired LAN connections from a laptop is rather cumbersome and results in less work efficiency, so hardwiring the facilities is not a valid option. Wireless pc cards in the laptops and access points at three main buildings and one central facility will provide an RF medium that will work well with the client’s current hardware and provide the mobility needed now and in the future.

The layout of the Jacks Valley facility is such that “line of site” wireless technologies will not work. JV’s topography is very similar to what an outdoor paint ball facility looks like. There are a handful of buildings’ separated by great distances with large pine trees, boulders, and other objects blocking the line of site between buildings. Because of the distances and adverse visual conditions, we will be forced to hardwire the three facilities to one central facility via CAT 5 cable. Due to the fact that the cable will need to be laid underground, and this can be a costly endeavor, we will not be hardwiring the three other facilities together. Redundancy will be provided in the form of replacement access points located at each site. If by chance there is an issue with the wire (i.e. a wire cut takes place) users can simply move to another facility and reestablish connectivity there.

Device Connectivity

The JV network will be comprised of three types of hardware and two types of medium. SMC Networks, an industry leader in networking hardware for the last thirty years, will provide the hardware in use on the JV network. The mediums the network will be comprised of are wireless RF, running on the new 8011a standard, and shielded CAT 5 cable. The network device connectivity will divided into two categories based on the medium in use. First, Hard wire CAT 5 will provide connectivity between the central network router and the four access points, three of which will reside at separate facilities. Second, wireless RF will provide the connectivity between the pc cards, within the laptops, and at the access points located at the four sites. The network router will be an SMC barricade eight-port router that can support up to two hundred and fifty three users and has DHCP, VPN, encryption, and remote administration capabilities built into the hardware. The four wireless access points will connect to this router and will be able to support up to sixty-four simultaneous connections each. Each user will be connected to the facility’s access point via a removable pc card bus card using the new 011a standard.


The wireless network at JV will provided more than ample speed for all users. In the past, a major issue with wireless technology has been the reduction in speed it caused on a network. At best, most wireless technologies capped out at the 1 Mbps range. However, with the new 8011a standard wireless, devices can support up to 7 Mbps, almost seven times as faster than the old 8011b standard. This increase in speed makes wireless RF a much more plausible networking solution. In addition, because the new standard operates on the 5GHz level, and most other wireless technologies like cordless phones operate on the .4 GHz level, interference is no longer an issue. All other hardware devices and mediums in use on the network can operate up to the 100Mbps level; so again, speed will not be an issue.

Connectivity with Other Networks

The Backbone for the JV network will be provided by an already existent and functioning fiber connection between USAFANet and the central JV connection facility, where JV network router will be located.


The technology of tomorrow is wireless networking and by implementing it at Jack’s Valley we are ahead of the times. Whenever cutting edge technology is used it puts that network ahead of the curve for expandability. At this time we support 50 laptops through out the valley. The new construction planned for the valley will include more buildings and users in a few years. This network will easily be able to support the influx of customers and the only added expense will be upgrading the users laptops with wireless cards and XP software.

Vendor Support

To implement the wireless LAN at Jacks valley some careful consideration of hardware and software has been done. One of the main companies that S4 will be using is SMC. After researching a few different options SMC stood out above the others in cost, vendor support and reliability. The main hardware purchases will be a eight port broadband router that supports VPN/IPSec and wireless pc cards for the laptop. These products will be purchased through COMPUSA and comes with a one-year money back warranty. SMC also has a customer support contract that can be purchased for a minimal fee. This covers third level support for the wireless network regarding their products. The first line of defense will be the network administrator at the USAFA but this support contract will be for any questions they are unable to answer. (SMC755) regarding the SMC products.

The main software component that will have to purchase is the O/S XP by Microsoft. This software will be installed on all of the Dell laptops used by Jacks Valley Customers. This O/S allows VPN/IPSec to function and incorporates the wireless pc technology. Microsoft also offers different vender support options. They offer a online website that helps troubleshoot questions and problems with their software. This can be accessed as soon as you register your purchased products. They also have helpdesk call in support for a yearly fee. We opted to not go with this support due to the USAFA having two MCSE certified network engineers for troubleshooting. If they cannot answer the question they can still call the Microsoft number and pay a charge by the phone call.


Windows XP is sold in license packages. Microsoft has two packages available that would accommodate us, a 0 pack and a pack. For Jack’s valley we would need 1 x 0 pack + 7x packs to allow for 51 users. The price of an OEM license utilizing this formula would be $7,84 plus the price of the software which would be approximately $5000. The representative that I spoke with did not break this down any further for me and he did say that this is not an exact quote, although I thought it was good enough for our purposes. There is also an academic break on licenses which I think Jack’s Valley would qualify for. All cost would be about 5% of the normal cost. There is also a software assurance program that is available. The way licenses used to work is that once you bought the license you would receive the upgrades for free. Effective 7/1/0 that will change. If you want the upgrades you will have to purchase the Software Assurance Package. This package will send you all of the upgrades for years at no charge. The Software Assurance Package cost about half of the price of the licenses and will have to be renewed biannually.

I also checked on a Microsoft Windows Server. The server would cost about $700 however I did not get any of the technical info on it.

The cost of a VPN SmartTrust package would be $0. for 50 users. There would be no additional charges for this package and updates would be sent regularly.

Type/Number of Workstations/Printers

The type of workstations members will use are standard Dell Inspiron 8100. The units are intended to serve as stand-alone units while the cadets are not in the JVTC. The units are ordered before the cadets arrive to USAFA and are given to them shortly after basic training. The systems are comparably equipped to standard desktop units in storage, video capacity, and network connectivity.

The type of printers we would need would be standard network printers that could handle a workgroup load. The Hewlett-Packard 8000 series is the USAFANet standard and would work fine in the JVTC. These units cost about $,000 each and are basically plug and play. Our requirements are for three printers.


A network consultant will monitor all network activity using a variety of tools, applications, and devices. When one or more user-determined thresholds are exceeded alerts will be generated. Upon receiving these alerts, the network consultant will react by executing one, several, or a group of actions, including operator notification, event logging, system shutdown, and automatic attempts at system repair.

ISO Network Management Model

The ISO has contributed a great deal to network standardization. Its network management model is the primary means for understanding the major functions of network management systems. This model consists of five conceptual areas, as discussed in the next sections.

Performance Management

The goal of performance management is to measure and make available various aspects of network performance so that inter-network performance can be maintained at an acceptable level.

Configuration Management

The goal of configuration management is to monitor network and system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed.

Accounting Management

The goal of accounting management is to measure network utilization parameters so that individual or group uses on the network can be regulated appropriately. Such regulation minimizes network problems (because network resources can be apportioned based on resource capacities) and maximizes the fairness of network access across all users.

Fault Management

The goal of fault management is to detect, log, notify users of, and (to the extent possible) automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively.

Security Management

The goal of security management is to control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged (intentionally or unintentionally) and sensitive information cannot be accessed by those without appropriate authorization.


Operating System

Microsoft Windows XP Professional (Windows XP) is designed for business of all sizes. It is an Operating System (OS) that unifies the Microsoft range with all the desktop versions now built on the NT/000 code base. There is no special synergy between windows XP and Microsoft Office XP, which works fine with Windows 000.

One of the most interesting improvements to XP, especially to LITS, is the remote desktop, a standard XP feature that utilizes technology from Microsoft Terminal Server to enable users to access their computer over any connection, for example locations other than Jack’s Valley. This access allows you to run applications remotely, although this feature can be disabled if there are any security concerns. Windows XP can also easily use modems in mobile phones vial infrared. There is also built in support for wireless networking using the 80.11 standard.

Windows XP has the ability to synchronize network files with off line copies and can now be encrypted. For web browsing XP has Internet Explorer 6.0 and a built in firewall. The firewall is simple and will need another application for increased security.

Windows XP has strong multi-media features with RW CD, DVD Video, MP Audio files and MPED videos. Windows XP supports dual encrypt able file systems, offline folders and remote desktops. It is designed for reliability, security, high performance and ease of use, all of which are beneficial to the environment of Jack’s Valley. The cost of Windows XP is $. for a single user.

VPN Client for SmartTrust

VPN (Virtual Private Network) Client for SmartTrust (VPN) is a choice product to provide a secure method of exchanging confidential data and network resources. Internet-based remote access presents challenges in protecting the confidentiality and integrity of essential business information as it travels over the public Internet. A VPN is an umbrella term that refers to all the technologies enabling secure communications over the Internet. VPN uses tunnels between two gateways to protect private data as it travels. VPN SmartTrust utilizes IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) protocol suite to provide security services at the network level. An IPSec tunnel through the Internet protects all data traffic passing through, regardless of the application. IPSec technology is based on modem cryptographic technologies, making possible very strong data authentication and privacy guarantees. As a standard, IPSec is supported by a number of VPN vendors to allow interoperability.

VPN SmartTrust is not a complete solution with out Internet Access Security for local networks. An effective VPN solution is built on a security platform that includes a firewall and support for other security services such as network anti-virus. SmartTrust VPN is compatible with other VPN gateways based on IPSec standard, such as Checkpoint Firewall-1, Cisco Pix, and Nortel Contivity.

Wireless Security

There are several security issues to be considered when implementing a wireless network. Sensitive data must remain safe. Users must have confidence in the system.


Wireless networks have become one of the most interesting targets for hackers today. Hackers who drive around with an appropriately configured wireless network client to locate and access, or LAN-jack, wireless networks are referred to as war drivers. War drivers use programs such as NetStumbler to obtain a wealth of detail from LAN-jacked transmissions. Cracker tools like AirSnort and WEPCrack can begin decoding traffic in mere minutes. The threat is real and significant, particularly around military and government installations. Although it will also take a wireless bridge from the same manufacturer as the one used in the transmission, this is a threat that must be considered.

The devices used by end users can be a risk to network security. Hardware and software vulnerabilities include poor concealment of passwords and easy lockout bypass. They can be easily lost or stolen. Viruses and cross-system attacks and exploits are common among wireless LANs where users are allowed to load personal software.

As always, uneducated or unconcerned users also pose a huge threat to any type of network security.

The 80.11b standard used for wireless LANs includes a provision for encryption called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy). The security world recently announced a security breach in WEP which allowed the encryption protocol associated with 80.11b. with its current implementation of static keys to be broken.

It is common practice to implement a wireless solution and not use any encryption at all. This is asking for someone to have a great deal of fun at your networks expense.

Wireless LANs usually share unlicensed frequencies with other devices, including consumer-based Bluetooth devices, cordless phones, and baby monitors - which can, and do, interfere with each other. It is also easy to interfere with wireless communications. A simple jamming transmitter can make communications impossible. For example, consistently hammering an AP with access requests, whether successful or not, will eventually exhaust its available radio frequency spectrum and knock it off the network. Other wireless services in the same frequency range can reduce the range and usable bandwidth of WLAN technology. Bluetooth technology, used to communicate between handsets and other information appliances, is one of many technologies today that use the same radio frequency as WLAN devices. These intentional, or unintentional, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks can render WLAN devices unusable.

In the hands of a determined hacker, a rogue AP can be a valuable asset in the attempted compromise of network resources. The principal threat is installing an AP into a network after gaining unauthorized access to a building. The user typically gains access to the building by tailgating behind a user with a valid access badge or by obtaining a guest badge for some other reason. Because APs are relatively small and can be purchased at many electronics outlets worldwide, it is easy for the hacker not only to obtain the AP but also to install it discreetly. Attaching the AP to the underside of a conference-room table and plugging into the live network allows the hacker to break into a network from the relative security of his car in the parking lot.

Meeting the threats

Strong authentication technology and procedures must be enforced.

Procedures must include provisions for short-term temporary users as well as permanent party users. Guests should only have access when they are visiting.

A SmartTrust Virtual Private Network solution is probably the best way to thwart intrusions on wireless transmissions. SmartTrust uses embedded PKI to allow digital signing, authentication, and non-repudiation services. Some benefits of SmartTrust are increased security through smart cards and / or mobile handsets, cost savings and cheaper communication costs, simplified network management and secure user log-on, and flexible and scalable implementations.

Issuing PKI certificates in a wireless environment is basically the same as in a wired network. SmartTrust Certificate Manager uses the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card to provide security. The SIM stores the keys needed to initiate digital signatures and allows the laptop to become a Personal Trusted Device capable of handling secure transactions.

Since wireless PCs are almost always on, recommend employing personal firewalls on each unit to thwart local data from as many known attacks as possible.

We must ensure there is no way for the wireless devices to connect to the wired network inside the firewall as a “rogue” device. If this is possible, you loose control of your security architecture.

Install software to analyze user activities and system activity logs. Doing so enables the organization to detect suspicious activity before a full-blown break-in occurs.

Provide sufficient training to end-users. Especially be sure that users are aware of the dangers of not logging off their computers. Such dangers include the ability of a third-party to sit at an open computer and assume the users identity. The unauthorized person has all the rights and privileges of the logged in user. Any suspicious activity will be traced back to the users login, not to the unauthorized person.

A radio frequency spectrum analysis should be performed to ensure the radio frequencies being used by currently existing systems do not interfere with the proposed WLAN.


Stamper, D.A. (1) Business data communications (5th ed.). New York Addision-Wesley.

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